WoRMS taxon details

Myzostomida

233983  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:233983)

von Graff, 1877
accepted
Order
Philocrinida (junior synonym)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent + fossil
Graff, Ludwig von. (1877). Das Genus Myzostoma (F.S. Leuckart). 1-82. Wilhelm Engelmann. Leipzig., available online at http://solo.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/OXVU1:oxfaleph012857796 [details]   
Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2019). World Polychaeta database. Myzostomida. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=233983 on 2019-10-19
Date
action
by
2006-08-23 13:24:43Z
created
2008-03-26 11:36:43Z
changed
2010-03-03 00:50:30Z
changed
2014-02-18 00:49:53Z
changed
2014-08-31 21:46:55Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description Graff, Ludwig von. (1877). Das Genus Myzostoma (F.S. Leuckart). 1-82. Wilhelm Engelmann. Leipzig., available online at http://solo.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/OXVU1:oxfaleph012857796 [details]   

taxonomy source Perrier, Edmond 1897. Traité de Zoologie Fascicle 4. Vers, Mollusques, Tuniciers: Paris, Masson et Cie., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11976614
page(s): 1633 [details]   

taxonomy source Rouse, G. W.; Pleijel, F. (2001). Polychaetes. <em>Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK [etc.]. ISBN 0-19-850608-2.</em> 354 pp. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 125 [details]   

taxonomy source Grygier, Mark. (2000). Class Myzostomida. <em>[Book].</em> p. 297-329 In: Beesley, P.L.; Ross, G.B.; Glasby, C.J. (eds). Polychaetes & Allies: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. Vol. 4A Polychaeta, Myzostomida, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne., available online at http://www.environment.gov.au/science/abrs/publications/fauna-of-australia/fauna-4a [details]   

taxonomy source Graff, Ludwig von. (1884). Report on the Myzostomida collected during the voyage of H.M.Challenger during the years 1873-1876. <em>Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–76. Zoology.</em> 10 (part 27): 1-82, pl. 1-16., available online at http://www.19thcenturyscience.org/HMSC/HMSC-Reports/Zool-27/htm/doc.html [details]   

taxonomy source Summers, Mindi M.; Al-Hakim, Iin Inayat.; Rouse, Greg W. (2014). Turbo-taxonomy: 21 new species of Myzostomida (Annelida). Zootaxa. 3873(4): 301-344., available online at https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3873.4.1 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

taxonomy source Summers, Mindi M.; Rouse, Greg W. (2014). Phylogeny of Myzostomida (Annelida) and their relationships with echinoderm hosts. <em>BMC Evolutionary Biology.</em> 14:170., available online at https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-014-0170-7 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

taxonomy source Wagin, V. L. (Vladimir Lvovich). (2007). On the annelid theory about the origin of myzostomids, their position in the system of Trochozoa, and identification of the new phylum Myzostomida. (In Russian). <em>Uchenye Zapiski Kazanskogo Universiteta. Seriya Estestvennye Nauki.</em> 149 (3): 31–41., available online at https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=11137617
note: raised to phylum [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Helm, Conrad; Stevenson, Paul A.; Rouse, Greg W.; Bleidorn, Christoph. (2014). Immunohistochemical investigations of Myzostoma cirriferum and Mesomyzostoma cf. katoi (Myzostomida, Annelida) with implications for the evolution of the myzostomid body plan. <i>Zoomorphology</i>. 133(3): 257-271., available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/s00435-014-0221-z
page(s): [evolution of segmentation] [details]   

status source Mwinyi, A.; Meyer, A.; Bleidorn, C.; Lieb, B.; Bartolomaeus, T.; Podsiadlowski, L. (2009). Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida. <i>BMC Genomics</i>. 10(1): 27., available online at https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-10-27 [details]   

status source Wang, Y.; Xie, Q. (2014). The Molecular Symplesiomorphies Shared by the Stem Groups of Metazoan Evolution: Can Sites as Few as 1% Have a Significant Impact on Recognizing the Phylogenetic Position of Myzostomida?. <i>Journal of Molecular Evolution</i>. 79(1-2): 63-74., available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/s00239-014-9635-y
page(s): [Position of Myzostomida unresolved] [details]   

status source Bleidorn, C.; Helm, C.; Weigert, A.; Eeckhaut, I.; Lanterbecq, D.; Struck, T. H.; Hartmann, S.; Tiedemann, R. (2014). From morphology to phylogenomics: Placing the enigmatic Myzostomida in the tree of life. <em>[Book section].</em> 161-172 In: Deep Metazoan Phylogeny: The Backbone of the Tree of Life, edited by Wägele, Wolfgang & Bartolomaeus, Thomas., available online at https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110277524.161 [details]   

status source Wagin, V. L. (Vladimir Lvovich). (2007). On the annelid theory about the origin of myzostomids, their position in the system of Trochozoa, and identification of the new phylum Myzostomida. (In Russian). <em>Uchenye Zapiski Kazanskogo Universiteta. Seriya Estestvennye Nauki.</em> 149 (3): 31–41., available online at https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=11137617
note: an article published many years after Wagin had died. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

ecology source Jumars, Peter A.; Dorgan, Kelly M.; Lindsay, Sara M. (2015). Diet of Worms Emended: An Update of Polychaete Feeding Guilds. <em>Annual Review of Marine Science.</em> 7(1): 497-520., available online at https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010814-020007
page(s): supplement A169 [details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
From editor or global species database
Classification Myzostomida have apparent morphological affinities to Polychaeta, and have been treated as a group within Phyllodocida. The position of Myzostomida is unresolved and recent molecular studies have not placed Myzostomida close to Polychaeta (uncertain if real or artifactual placement), although authors find similarities (just for example their planktonic larvae look very polychaete like). Myzostomida are placed in Annelida based on mitochondrial gene orders (Mwinyi et al. 2009). Most recently Bleidorn et al (2014) wrote "Placing the myzostomids in the Annelida is the best supported and most plausible hypothesis in the light of the current data"

However, there have been contrary views. As recently as 2000 it was concluded (Eeckhaut et al, 2000) that "analyses strongly reject the grouping of myzostomids with any subgroup of annelids.This does not really conflict with morphological data because, although myzostomids are most often considered as polychaete annelids, not a single morphological synapomorphy (i.e. a shared derived character state) linking the two taxa has been unambiguously identified. Indeed, the character states usually put forward for grouping myzostomids and polychaetes (the presence of chaetae and a trochophore larva) are encountered in other spiralian groups: chaetae occur in the Clitellata, Pogonophora, Echiura, and some Mollusca and Brachiopoda (Specht 1988), and trochophores are found in the development of some Mollusca, Sipuncula, Echiura and Pogonophora (Heimler 1987). " As recently as 2007 (Wagin, 2007) the Myzostomida were raised to a separate phylum status. This appears to be the only publication ever to treat myzostomids at phylum-level. Wagin (2007) was a posthumous publication some twenty years after his death
 [details]

Ecology Most Myzostomida are free-living associates of crinoid echinoderms. Some are encysted by the host in galls, some are endoparasitic. Others live on basket-stars, asteroids, or ophiuroids. Jumars et al (2015:A169) have further family-level feeding analysis [details]
 



LanguageName 
English myzostomarians  [details]
Japanese スイクチムシ  [details]