WoRMS name details

Axinella pumila Babiç, 1922

181266  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:181266)

 unaccepted (preoccupied)
Species
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent only
Babiç, K. (1922). Monactinellida und Tetractinellida des Adriatischen Meeres. <em>Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere.</em> 46(2): 217-302, pls 8-9.
page(s): 241-242; fig R [details]  OpenAccess publication 
Type locality contained in Adriatic Sea  
type locality contained in Adriatic Sea [details]
Homonymy This combination is preoccupied by Axinella pumila Keller, 1889, now transferred to Higginsia, but since both are primary...  
Homonymy This combination is preoccupied by Axinella pumila Keller, 1889, now transferred to Higginsia, but since both are primary homonyms Axinella pumila Babiç is permanently unavailable following the ICZN, and needs to be renamed (thanks to Philippe Bouchet for pointing this out). [details]

Nomenclature We cite here Van Soest et al.'s (2020:46) explanation for the status of Axinella minuta as replacement name for Axinella...  
Nomenclature We cite here Van Soest et al.'s (2020:46) explanation for the status of Axinella minuta as replacement name for Axinella pumila Babić, 1922.
Removal of homonymy between Higginsia pumila (Keller, 1889) and Axinella pumila Babić, 1922.
1. Axinella pumila Keller, 1889: 397 (type locality Red Sea). The original combination has been reassigned to Higginsia pumila (Keller, 1889) by Hooper (1991:724), and considered accepted in the World Porifera Database (ICZN Art. 57.2).
2. Axinella pumila Babić, 1922: 241 (type locality Croatian waters, Adriatic). The name of this Axinella species must be replaced regardless of the fact that the senior homonym is now a Higginsia. A problem is that the Babić material has been destroyed (cf. Boros 1957), which precluded Van Soest et al. from verifying the true identity. The species name was used by e.g. Uriz (1982:64) and Boury-Esnault et al. (1994:91). These authors state that Axinella minuta Lévi, 1957:205 from the Mediterranean coast of Israel is a junior synonym, so if that is accepted then that name is the first junior synonym that can be used for A. pumila. No new name is then necessary and the type of A. minuta Lévi 1957 is then to be nominated the (neo)type of A. pumila Babić, as both are assumed to be the same species. However, styles of pumila are smaller and thinner than those of minuta (285-935 x 8-16 μm vs up to 1200 μm, respectively), oxeas are longer, but not very specific in the descriptions, so conspecificity is uncertain. Boury-Esnault et al. (1994) suggest they are separate species, but that the Axinella minuta described by Pulitzer-Finali (1983) are more like A. pumila. This indicated that the alleged differences between the two are apparently so small and subtle, that even for specialist observers it is debatable whether maintaining two separate species for these small Axinella forms is realistic (without molecular data support). Van Soest et al. (2020) assigned Axinella minuta to the synonymy of A. pumila Babić and establish that the former is the oldest junior synonym, to be used to replace the latter in order to remove the homonymy (ICZN Art. 60.2).
3. Summary: Higginsia pumila (Keller, 1889) is to be maintained as the senior primary name (ICZN Art. 57.2). Axinella pumila Babić, 1922 is a junior primary homonym and needed to be replaced. To remove the homonymy, the oldest synonym, Axinella minuta Lévi, 1957 was proposed to replace it (ICZN Art. 60.2).  [details]
Van Soest, R.W.M.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Hooper, J.N.A.; Rützler, K.; de Voogd, N.J.; Alvarez, B.; Hajdu, E.; Pisera, A.B.; Manconi, R.; Schönberg, C.; Klautau, M.; Kelly, M.; Vacelet, J.; Dohrmann, M.; Díaz, M.-C.; Cárdenas, P.; Carballo, J.L.; Ríos, P.; Downey, R.; Morrow, C.C. (2020). World Porifera Database. Axinella pumila Babiç, 1922. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=181266 on 2020-06-05
Date
action
by
2005-09-09 16:45:37Z
created
2007-08-10 14:08:54Z
changed
2015-02-01 12:48:54Z
changed
2020-03-06 10:15:15Z
changed

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original description Babiç, K. (1922). Monactinellida und Tetractinellida des Adriatischen Meeres. <em>Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere.</em> 46(2): 217-302, pls 8-9.
page(s): 241-242; fig R [details]  OpenAccess publication 

taxonomy source Sitjà, C.; Maldonado, M. (2014). New and rare sponges from the deep shelf of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean). <em>Zootaxa.</em> 3760: 141–179.
page(s): 156 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source D'Onghia, G.; Capezzuto, F.; Cardone, F.; Carlucci, R.; Carluccio, A.; Chimienti, G.; Corriero, G.; Longo, C.; Maiorano, P.; Mastrototaro, F.; Panetta, P.; Rosso, A.; Sanfilippo, R.; Sion, L.; Tursi, A. (2015). Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea) using different tools. <em>Mediterranean Marine Science.</em> 16(1): 180-196., available online at https://doi.org/10.12681/mms.1082
page(s): 184 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Boury-Esnault, N.; Pansini, M.; Uriz, M.J. (1994). Spongiaires bathyaux de la mer d'Alboran et du golfe ibéro-marocain. <em>Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.</em> 160: 1-174., available online at http://bibliotheques.mnhn.fr/EXPLOITATION/infodoc/ged/viewportalpublished.ashx?eid=IFD_FICJOINT_MNHN_MMNHN_S000_1994_T160_N000_1 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Uriz, M.J. (1982). Estudio sistemático de las esponjas del orden Axinellida (Demospongia) de la Costa Brava (Cataluña). <em>Actas II Simposio ibérico de estudios del Bentos Marino.</em> 2 (3): 57-80.
page(s): 64-67 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Carballo, J.L.; Garcia-Gómez, J.C. (1995). <i>Axinella estacioi</i> n.sp. (Porifera, Axinellida) from caves of the Strait of Gibraltar (southern Iberian Peninsula). <em>Cahiers de Biologie Marine.</em> 36 (4): 245-250. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Cruz, T. (2002). Esponjas marinas de Canarias. <em>Consejería de Política Territorial y Medio Ambiente del Gobierno de Canarias.</em> S/C Tenerife. 260 pp. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

source of synonymy Van Soest, R. W. M.; Hooper, J. N. A.; Butler, P. J. (2020). Every sponge its own name: removing Porifera homonyms. <em>Zootaxa.</em> 4745(1): 1-93., available online at https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4745.1.1
page(s): 46 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
 

From editor or global species database
Homonymy This combination is preoccupied by Axinella pumila Keller, 1889, now transferred to Higginsia, but since both are primary homonyms Axinella pumila Babiç is permanently unavailable following the ICZN, and needs to be renamed (thanks to Philippe Bouchet for pointing this out). [details]

Nomenclature We cite here Van Soest et al.'s (2020:46) explanation for the status of Axinella minuta as replacement name for Axinella pumila Babić, 1922.
Removal of homonymy between Higginsia pumila (Keller, 1889) and Axinella pumila Babić, 1922.
1. Axinella pumila Keller, 1889: 397 (type locality Red Sea). The original combination has been reassigned to Higginsia pumila (Keller, 1889) by Hooper (1991:724), and considered accepted in the World Porifera Database (ICZN Art. 57.2).
2. Axinella pumila Babić, 1922: 241 (type locality Croatian waters, Adriatic). The name of this Axinella species must be replaced regardless of the fact that the senior homonym is now a Higginsia. A problem is that the Babić material has been destroyed (cf. Boros 1957), which precluded Van Soest et al. from verifying the true identity. The species name was used by e.g. Uriz (1982:64) and Boury-Esnault et al. (1994:91). These authors state that Axinella minuta Lévi, 1957:205 from the Mediterranean coast of Israel is a junior synonym, so if that is accepted then that name is the first junior synonym that can be used for A. pumila. No new name is then necessary and the type of A. minuta Lévi 1957 is then to be nominated the (neo)type of A. pumila Babić, as both are assumed to be the same species. However, styles of pumila are smaller and thinner than those of minuta (285-935 x 8-16 μm vs up to 1200 μm, respectively), oxeas are longer, but not very specific in the descriptions, so conspecificity is uncertain. Boury-Esnault et al. (1994) suggest they are separate species, but that the Axinella minuta described by Pulitzer-Finali (1983) are more like A. pumila. This indicated that the alleged differences between the two are apparently so small and subtle, that even for specialist observers it is debatable whether maintaining two separate species for these small Axinella forms is realistic (without molecular data support). Van Soest et al. (2020) assigned Axinella minuta to the synonymy of A. pumila Babić and establish that the former is the oldest junior synonym, to be used to replace the latter in order to remove the homonymy (ICZN Art. 60.2).
3. Summary: Higginsia pumila (Keller, 1889) is to be maintained as the senior primary name (ICZN Art. 57.2). Axinella pumila Babić, 1922 is a junior primary homonym and needed to be replaced. To remove the homonymy, the oldest synonym, Axinella minuta Lévi, 1957 was proposed to replace it (ICZN Art. 60.2).  [details]