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Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhalacroma rotundatum (Claparéde & Lachmann) Kofoid & Michener, 1911 
AphiaID: 156505

Classification: Biota > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChromista (Kingdom) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHarosa (Subkingdom) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAlveolata (Infrakingdom) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMyzozoa (Phylum) > Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorDinozoa (Subphylum) > Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorDinoflagellata (Infraphylum) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDinophyceae (Class) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDinophysiales (Order) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDinophysiaceae (Family) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhalacroma (Genus) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhalacroma rotundatum (Species)
Status accepted
Rank Species
Parent Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhalacroma Stein, 1883
Synonymised
names
  Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDinophysis rotundata Claparède & Lachmann, 1859 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDinophysis rotundata Levander, 1894 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDinophysis whittingae Balech, 1971 (misspelling)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDinophysis whittingiae Balech, 1971 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorProdinophysis rotundata (Claparède & Lachmann) Balech (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorProdinophysis rotundatum (Claparéde & Lachmann) Balech, 1944 (synonym)
Sources  basis of record Horner, R.A. 2002. A taxonomic guide to some common marine phytoplankton. Biopress Ltd. Bristol. 195 p.  [details]

[show all]
Direct child
taxa (1)

[show all]
 Variety Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorPhalacroma rotundatum var. laevis (Claparède & Lachmann) Jørgesen
Environment marine
Distribution  Trusted: edited by a thematic editortype locality North Sea [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
From other sources
France
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorWimereux [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Gulf of Mexico
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorGulf of Mexico [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorLebanese Exclusive Economic Zone [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
North Atlantic Ocean
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorEuropean waters (ERMS scope) [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorGulf of Maine [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorIrish Exclusive economic Zone [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorNorth West Atlantic [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorUnited Kingdom Exclusive Economic Zone [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
(no group)
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorNew Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorSwedish Exclusive Economic Zone [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Links Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorPlanktonNet Image 
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorPublished in AlgaeBase Logo AlgaeBase 
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo Biodiversity Heritage Library (4 publications) 
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo GenBank (11 nucleotides; 2 proteins) 
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo PESI 
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo ITIS
Notes 
From editor or global species database
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:45000 [details]

From regional or thematic species database
Trusted: edited by a thematic editorHarmful effect HPLC-FD analysis of one sample of picked cells of Japanese strains of D. rotundata found it containing DTX1 (101 pg/cell)(Lee et al. 1989).
No toxins detected in HPLC-FD analyses of dense blooms of P. rotundatum (as Dinophysis rotundata) from eastern Canada (Cembella 1989) and Italy (Caroppo et al. 1999).
No toxins in picked cells analyzed by LC-MS in Japan (Suzuki et al. 2009).
When P. rotundatum was found co-occurring with toxic species of Dinophysis (D. acuminata, D. acuta, D. norvegica, D. caudata), LC-MS analyses of picked cells showed either small amounts of the same toxins (OA, DTXs, PTXs) present in the co-occurring Dinophysis species or no toxins at all (Miles et al. 2004; González-Gil et al. 2011).
Miles et al. (2004) found the same toxins in 3 heterotrophic species of Protoperidinium co-occurring with the same multispecific bloom (D. acuminata, D. acuta, D. norvegica and P. rotundatum).
There is growing suspicion that P. rotundatum is not a toxin-producer de novo, but may contain DSP toxins and act as a vector after feeding on tintinnids who preyed on toxic Dinophysis (reviewed in González-Gil et al. 2011).

 [details]

From other sources
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorDiet general for group: both heterotrophic (eat other organisms) and autotrophic (photosynthetic) [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorDistribution cosmopolitan; warm and cold waters. [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorHabitat pelagic [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorImportance General: known for producing dangerous toxins, particularly when in large numbers, called "red tides" because the cells are so abundant they make water change color. Also they can produce non-fatal or fatal amounts of toxins in predators (particularly shellfish) that may be eaten by humans. [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorPredators marine microorganisms and animal larvae [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorReproduction general for group: both sexual and asexual [details]
Images Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor[show unreviewed]
LSID urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:156505
Taxonomic
Edit history
 
Date   action   by
2005-05-19 10:34:44Z  created  Claus, Simon
2007-10-17 15:07:21Z  changed  db_admin
2008-03-27 13:16:17Z  checked  Scott, Fiona
2008-11-20 10:21:18Z  changed  Moestrup, Øjvind
2012-10-23 08:08:43Z  changed  Guiry, Michael D.
2012-12-11 15:19:23Z  changed  Moestrup, Øjvind
  
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  Citation: Guiry, Michael D. (2014). Phalacroma rotundatum (Claparéde & Lachmann) Kofoid & Michener, 1911. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2014). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=156505 on 2014-11-26
  Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License