WoRMS name details

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCrassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793)

140656  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:140656)

Unaccepted: synonym, or anything that is not accepted unaccepted
Species
marine
recent + fossil
Thunberg C. P. (1793). Tekning och Beskrifning på en stor Ostronsort ifrån Japan. Kongliga Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, 14(4-6): 140-142, 1 pl, available online at http://books.google.es/books?id=tMM4AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA140 [details]   
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTaxonomy The Portuguese oyster Crassostrea angulata and...  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTaxonomy The Portuguese oyster Crassostrea angulata and the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas were described as distinct species with widely separated geographical origins - southwestern Europe and Japan respectively. In the 1970's C. gigas was introduced to the Atlantic coast of France in order to restore oyster farming affected by a disease of C. angulata, and it became evident that the two species could hybridize (Menzel, 1974, Huvet et al., 2004) and therefore were treated as synonyms (Huber, 2010).
During the recent years, however, several genetic studies based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data have provided evidence that the two taxa are genetically distinct although closely related (see overview in Batista et al. 2005). Particularly, an average of 2.3% difference in CO1 sequence suggests that populations of C. gigas and C. angulata may have diverged several hundred thousand years ago (Hedgecock et al., 2004). Studies involving microsatellite markers have shown that there are low but clear genetic differences between the two taxons. From all recent studies, it seems clear that the European C. angulata was introduced in the XVI or XVIIth century from Taiwan, and can be recognized genetically from C. gigas introduced later from Japan.
Nevertheless the relationship of both taxa in intermediate locations remains to be elucidated. Lapègue et al. (2004) reported characteristic haplotypes of both C. gigas and C. angulata occurred in a population from northern China locally known as C. talienwhanensis Crosse, 1862; this could either mean that both species are distinct but overlap ranges, or that all those haplotypes are to be found in a single, geographically variable species.
Considering this state of the art, C. angulata and C. gigas are listed here separately but qualified as very closely related and still possibly conspecific.  [details]
Marshall, B.; Gofas, S. (2017). Crassostrea gigas. In: MolluscaBase (2017). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=140656 on 2017-12-16

Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2015-01-04 20:50:57Z
changed
2015-03-19 20:25:34Z
changed
2015-03-22 19:09:38Z
changed
2017-02-22 03:34:43Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description Thunberg C. P. (1793). Tekning och Beskrifning på en stor Ostronsort ifrån Japan. Kongliga Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, 14(4-6): 140-142, 1 pl, available online at http://books.google.es/books?id=tMM4AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA140 [details]   

original description  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorDioeciostrea hispaniola Orton, 1928) Orton J.H. (1928). The dominant species of Ostrea. Nature. 121 (3044): 320-321., available online at https://doi.org/10.1038/121320b0
note: names in this paper are unavailable because there is a disclaimer p. 121 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

original description  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstrea posjetica Razin, 1934) Razin A.I. (1934). Morskie promyslovye Molliuski luzhnogo Primor'ia [in Russian; Commercial marine molluscs of the southern maritime province]. Tizhookeanskii Nauchnyi Institut Rybnogo Zhostaistva, Isvestiia. 8: 110 pp, 1 foldout map. [details]   

additional source Huvet A., Fabioux C., Mccombie H., Lapegue S & Boudry P. 2004. Natural hybridization between genetically differentiated populations of Crassostrea gigas and C. angulata highlighted by sequence variation in flanking regions of a microsatellite locus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 272: 141-152., available online at http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/3355/ [details]   

additional source Hedgecock D., Li G., Hubert S., Bucklin K. & Ribes V. 2003. Widespread null alleles and poor cross-species amplification of microsatellite dna loci cloned from the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Journal of Shellfish Research, 23(2): 379-385. , available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/3063290 [details]   

additional source Yu Z., Kong X. Zhang L., Guo X. & Xiang J. 2003. Taxonomic status of four Crassostrea oysters from China as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Journal of Shellfish Research, 22(1): 31-38. , available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/3105572 [details]   

additional source Marchini, A.; Ferrario, J.; Sfriso, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A. (2015). Current status and trends of biological invasions in the Lagoon of Venice, a hotspot of marine NIS introductions in the Mediterranean Sea. Biological Invasions. , available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-015-0922-3 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

redescription Coan, E. V.; Valentich-Scott, P. (2012). Bivalve seashells of tropical West America. Marine bivalve mollusks from Baja California to northern Peru. 2 vols, 1258 pp. [details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorCrassostrea talienwhanensis (Crosse, 1862)) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorDioeciostrea hispaniola Orton, 1928) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstrea cymbaeformis G. B. Sowerby II, 1871) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstrea cymbaeformis G. B. Sowerby II, 1871) Petit, R. E. (2009). George Brettingham Sowerby, I, II & III: their conchological publications and molluscan taxa. Zootaxa. 2189: 1–218., available online at http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2009/f/z02189p218f.pdf [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstrea laperousii Schrenck, 1862) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

source of synonymy  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstrea laperousii Schrenck, 1862) Coan, E. V.; Valentich-Scott, P. (2012). Bivalve seashells of tropical West America. Marine bivalve mollusks from Baja California to northern Peru. 2 vols, 1258 pp. [details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstrea posjetica Razin, 1934) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstrea rostralis G. B. Sowerby II, 1871) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorLopha posjetica (Razin, 1934)) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorLopha posjetica beringi Vialov, 1946) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorLopha posjetica newelskyi Vialov, 1946) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorLopha posjetica zawoikoi Vialov, 1946) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

source of synonymy  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstrea chemnitzii var. elongata Grabau & King, 1928) Coan E.V., Lutaenko K.A., Zhang J.L. [Junlong] & Sun Q.M. [Qimeng]. (2015). The molluscan taxa of A. W. Grabau & S. G. King (1928) and their types. Malacologia. 58(1-2): 179-224., available online at http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.4002/040.058.0206 [details]   

subsequent type designation  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstrea chemnitzii var. elongata Grabau & King, 1928) Coan E.V., Lutaenko K.A., Zhang J.L. [Junlong] & Sun Q.M. [Qimeng]. (2015). The molluscan taxa of A. W. Grabau & S. G. King (1928) and their types. Malacologia. 58(1-2): 179-224., available online at http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.4002/040.058.0206 [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstrea talienwhanensis Crosse, 1862) Coan, E. V.; Valentich-Scott, P. (2012). Bivalve seashells of tropical West America. Marine bivalve mollusks from Baja California to northern Peru. 2 vols, 1258 pp. [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstrea gravitesta Yokoyama, 1926) Coan, E. V.; Valentich-Scott, P. (2012). Bivalve seashells of tropical West America. Marine bivalve mollusks from Baja California to northern Peru. 2 vols, 1258 pp. [details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorCrassostrea laperousii Schrenk, 1861) Check List of European Marine Mollusca (CLEMAM). , available online at http://www.somali.asso.fr/clemam/index.clemam.html [details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorCrassostrea posjetica (Razin, 1934)) Check List of European Marine Mollusca (CLEMAM). , available online at http://www.somali.asso.fr/clemam/index.clemam.html [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorCrassostrea posjetica (Razin, 1934)) Nikiforov S.B. (1979). K sistematike ustrits iuzhnogo primoria [in Russian; Systematics of the oysters from the southern marine province]. Biologia Moria. 5(1): 25-33. [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstrea gigas var. tientsiensis Grabau & King, 1928) Coan E.V., Lutaenko K.A., Zhang J.L. [Junlong] & Sun Q.M. [Qimeng]. (2015). The molluscan taxa of A. W. Grabau & S. G. King (1928) and their types. Malacologia. 58(1-2): 179-224., available online at http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.4002/040.058.0206 [details]   

context source (Introduced species) Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. BioInvasions Records. 1: 235-245., available online at http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

context source (Schelde) Maris, T.; Beauchard, O.; Van Damme, S.; Van den Bergh, E.; Wijnhoven, S.; Meire, P. (2013). Referentiematrices en Ecotoopoppervlaktes Annex bij de Evaluatiemethodiek Schelde-estuarium Studie naar “Ecotoopoppervlaktes en intactness index”. Monitor Taskforce Publication Series, 2013-01. NIOZ: Yerseke. 35 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien 
 

From editor or global species database
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTaxonomy The Portuguese oyster Crassostrea angulata and the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas were described as distinct species with widely separated geographical origins - southwestern Europe and Japan respectively. In the 1970's C. gigas was introduced to the Atlantic coast of France in order to restore oyster farming affected by a disease of C. angulata, and it became evident that the two species could hybridize (Menzel, 1974, Huvet et al., 2004) and therefore were treated as synonyms (Huber, 2010).
During the recent years, however, several genetic studies based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data have provided evidence that the two taxa are genetically distinct although closely related (see overview in Batista et al. 2005). Particularly, an average of 2.3% difference in CO1 sequence suggests that populations of C. gigas and C. angulata may have diverged several hundred thousand years ago (Hedgecock et al., 2004). Studies involving microsatellite markers have shown that there are low but clear genetic differences between the two taxons. From all recent studies, it seems clear that the European C. angulata was introduced in the XVI or XVIIth century from Taiwan, and can be recognized genetically from C. gigas introduced later from Japan.
Nevertheless the relationship of both taxa in intermediate locations remains to be elucidated. Lapègue et al. (2004) reported characteristic haplotypes of both C. gigas and C. angulata occurred in a population from northern China locally known as C. talienwhanensis Crosse, 1862; this could either mean that both species are distinct but overlap ranges, or that all those haplotypes are to be found in a single, geographically variable species.
Considering this state of the art, C. angulata and C. gigas are listed here separately but qualified as very closely related and still possibly conspecific.  [details]

From regional or thematic species database
Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species abundance in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Common [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species abundance in Danish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Common [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species abundance in Swedish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Common [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species abundance in Norwegian part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Common [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species abundance in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Common [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species abundance in Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea (Marine Region) : Common [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in France (Nation) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in United Kingdom (Nation) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea (Marine Region) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in New Zealand (Nation) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact Angolan part of the South Atlantic Ocean : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in Germany (Nation) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in Australia (Nation) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in New Zealand (Nation) : Adverse habitat modification [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in France (Nation) : Water abstraction or nuisance fouling [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in Mexico (Nation) : Damage to marine structures or archaeology [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in Belgian part of the North Sea : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in Chile (Nation) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in New Zealand (Nation) : Alters trophic interactions [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in Maltese part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin : Loss of public/tourist amenity [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in Danish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in Australia (Nation) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in North Atlantic Ocean (IHO Sea Area) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in Swedish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in Norwegian part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species management in Australia (Nation) : yes [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species remark in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : The species is considered adaptive & invasive & may compete with local bivalve species for space and food (Diederich 2006; Krassoi et al., 2008 in Wrange et al. 2009). Increased water temperatures over recent decades are believed to have facilitated expan [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species remark in Danish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : The species is considered adaptive & invasive & may compete with local bivalve species for space and food (Diederich 2006; Krassoi et al., 2008 in Wrange et al. 2009). Increased water temperatures over recent decades are believed to have facilitated expan [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species remark In Tunisian part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin (Marine Region) : Populations were generally not self-sustained [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species remark In Swedish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : The species is considered adaptive & invasive & may compete with local bivalve species for space and food (Diederich 2006; Krassoi et al., 2008 in Wrange et al. 2009). Oyster biomass in the Danish Wadden Sea increased from 1056 to 6264 tonnes between 2005-2007. Increased water temperatures over recent decades are believed to have facilitated expansion of the species in Scandinavia. [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species remark In Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : The species is considered adaptive & invasive & may compete with local bivalve species for space and food (Diederich 2006; Krassoi et al., 2008 in Wrange et al. 2009). Oyster biomass in the Danish Wadden Sea increased from 1056 to 6264 tonnes between 2005-2007. Increased water temperatures over recent decades are believed to have facilitated expansion of the species in Scandinavia. [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species remark in Tunisian part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin (Marine Region) : Populations were generally not self-sustained and succesful reproduction was only reported in 2002-2003 for the Bizerte Lagoon [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species remark In Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea (Marine Region) : Crocetta (2011) in Lipej et al. 2012 reported C. gigas from all over the Gulf of Trieste. It is now distributed across the Slovenian coast mainly in the lower mediolittoral belt (De Min & Vio, 1997 in Lipej et al. 2012) especially in canals of salinas.  [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species remark In Norwegian part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : The species is considered adaptive & invasive & may compete with local bivalve species for space and food (Diederich 2006; Krassoi et al., 2008 in Wrange et al. 2009). Oyster biomass in the Danish Wadden Sea increased from 1056 to 6264 tonnes between 2005-2007. Increased water temperatures over recent decades are believed to have facilitated expansion of the species in Scandinavia. [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species remark in Tunisian part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin (Marine Region) : Populations were generally not self-sustained. [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species remark in New Zealand (Nation) : Negatively affects native periwinkle growth, body weight and egg production. Slows down crawling speed, which decreases grazing success. [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in Danish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Since the introduction of this species for aquaculture many introduced stocks have established permanent & self sustaining populations in the wild [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in Tunisian part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: accidental [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea (Marine Region) : Fisheries: deliberate translocations of fish or shellfish to establish or support fishery [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in Maltese part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: deliberate [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Since the introduction of this species for aquaculture many introduced stocks have established permanent & self sustaining populations in the wild [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in Tunisian part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: accidental [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in Danish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: deliberate [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in France (Nation) : Aquaculture: deliberate [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: deliberate [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in Maltese part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin : Aquaculture: deliberate [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: deliberate
Since the introduction of this species for aquaculture many introduced stocks have established permanent & self sustaining populations in the wild [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in Norwegian part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: deliberate
Since the introduction of this species for aquaculture many introduced stocks have established permanent & self sustaining populations in the wild [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in Swedish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: deliberate
Since the introduction of this species for aquaculture many introduced stocks have established permanent & self sustaining populations in the wild [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in France (Nation) : Aquaculture: deliberate [details]

From other sources
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorAlien species The Pacific cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas, seen by many people as a delicacy, was imported to Belgium in 1969 as an alternative to the failing farming of the local common oyster. It was originally thought that the species would not be able to reproduce here because of the cold climate. However, this proved to be incorrect. The Pacific cupped oyster is comfortable in Belgian waters and is able to attach itself to all kinds of hard substrates (dikes, groins, mussel banks…), while competing with mussels and other local shellfish for available space and food.  [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorSynonymy Until recently Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea angulata were taken as two separate species. According to Menzel (1974), Mathers et al. (1974), Buroker et al. (1979) and Thirot-Quievreux (1984) this is no longer tenable. [details]
 

Host of
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocephalus crassostreai Cheng, 1975 (parasitic: endoparasitic)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocephalus sinensis Ko, 1975 (parasitic: endoparasitic)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMacrochiron fucicolum Brady, 1872 (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorModiolicola bifida Tanaka, 1961 (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMyicola ostreae Hoshina & Sugiura, 1953 (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMytilicola intestinalis Steuer, 1902 (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMytilicola orientalis Mori, 1935 (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMytilicola orientalis Mori, 1935 (parasitic: endoparasitic)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstrincola similis Lin & Ho, 1999 (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPseudomyicola spinosus (Raffaele & Monticelli, 1885) (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
LanguageName 
Catalan Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorostra japonesa  [details]
Dutch Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorJapanse oester  [details]
English Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorPortuguese oysterUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorPacific cupped oysterUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorJapanese oysterUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorimmigrant oysterUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorgiant pacific oysterUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorgiant oysterUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorgiant cupped oyster  [details]
French Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorhuître portugaiseUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorhuître japonaiseUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorhuître du PacifiqueUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorhuître creuse japonaiseUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorhuître creuse du PacifiqueUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorhuître creuse  [details]
German Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorPortugiesische AusterUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorPazifische FelsenausterUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorPazifische AusterUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorJapanische AusterUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorFelsenauster  [details]
Italian Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorostrica giapponeseUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorostrica del PacificoUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorostrica concava  [details]
Japanese Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorマガキ  [details]
Modern Greek (1453-) Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorΣτρείδι Πορτογαλίας  [details]
Portuguese Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorostra-gigante  [details]
Spanish Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorostra japonesaUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorostión del PacíficoUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorostión  [details]
Swedish Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorJapanskt jätteostron  [details]