WoRMS name details

Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793)

140656  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:140656)

alternate representation
Species
marine
recent + fossil
Not documented
Taxonomy The Portuguese oyster Crassostrea angulata and the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas were described as distinct species...  
Taxonomy The Portuguese oyster Crassostrea angulata and the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas were described as distinct species with widely separated geographical origins - southwestern Europe and Japan respectively. In the 1970's C. gigas was introduced to the Atlantic coast of France in order to restore oyster farming affected by a disease of C. angulata, and it became evident that the two species could hybridize (Menzel, 1974, Huvet et al., 2004) and therefore were treated as synonyms (Huber, 2010).
During the recent years, however, several genetic studies based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data have provided evidence that the two taxa are genetically distinct although closely related (see overview in Batista et al. 2005). Particularly, an average of 2.3% difference in CO1 sequence suggests that populations of C. gigas and C. angulata may have diverged several hundred thousand years ago (Hedgecock et al., 2004). Studies involving microsatellite markers have shown that there are low but clear genetic differences between the two taxons. From all recent studies, it seems clear that the European C. angulata was introduced in the XVI or XVIIth century from Taiwan, and can be recognized genetically from C. gigas introduced later from Japan.
Nevertheless the relationship of both taxa in intermediate locations remains to be elucidated. Lapègue et al. (2004) reported characteristic haplotypes of both C. gigas and C. angulata occurred in a population from northern China locally known as C. talienwhanensis Crosse, 1862; this could either mean that both species are distinct but overlap ranges, or that all those haplotypes are to be found in a single, geographically variable species.
Considering this state of the art, C. angulata and C. gigas are listed here separately but qualified as very closely related and still possibly conspecific.  [details]
MolluscaBase (2018). Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=140656 on 2018-06-18
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2015-01-04 20:50:57Z
changed
2015-03-19 20:25:34Z
changed
2015-03-22 19:09:38Z
changed
2017-02-22 03:34:43Z
changed
2018-01-10 17:55:42Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description  (ofOstrea posjetica Razin, 1934) Razin A.I. (1934). Morskie promyslovye Molliuski luzhnogo Primor'ia [in Russian; Commercial marine molluscs of the southern maritime province]. Tizhookeanskii Nauchnyi Institut Rybnogo Zhostaistva, Isvestiia. 8: 110 pp, 1 foldout map. [details]   

original description  (ofDioeciostrea hispaniola Orton, 1928) Orton J.H. (1928). The dominant species of Ostrea. Nature. 121 (3044): 320-321., available online at https://doi.org/10.1038/121320b0
note: names in this paper are unavailable because there is a disclaimer p. 121 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Huvet A., Fabioux C., Mccombie H., Lapegue S & Boudry P. 2004. Natural hybridization between genetically differentiated populations of Crassostrea gigas and C. angulata highlighted by sequence variation in flanking regions of a microsatellite locus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 272: 141-152., available online at http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/3355/ [details]   

additional source Hedgecock D., Li G., Hubert S., Bucklin K. & Ribes V. 2003. Widespread null alleles and poor cross-species amplification of microsatellite dna loci cloned from the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Journal of Shellfish Research, 23(2): 379-385. , available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/3063290 [details]   

additional source Yu Z., Kong X. Zhang L., Guo X. & Xiang J. 2003. Taxonomic status of four Crassostrea oysters from China as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Journal of Shellfish Research, 22(1): 31-38. , available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/3105572 [details]   

additional source Marchini, A.; Ferrario, J.; Sfriso, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A. (2015). Current status and trends of biological invasions in the Lagoon of Venice, a hotspot of marine NIS introductions in the Mediterranean Sea. Biological Invasions. , available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-015-0922-3 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

redescription Coan, E. V.; Valentich-Scott, P. (2012). Bivalve seashells of tropical West America. Marine bivalve mollusks from Baja California to northern Peru. 2 vols, 1258 pp. [details]   

status source Bayne B.L., Ahrens M., Allen S. K., Anglès D'auriac M., Backeljau T., Beninger P., Bohn R., Boudry P., Davis J., Green T., Guo X., Hedgecock D., Ibarra A., Kingsley-Smith P., Krause M., Langdon C., Lapègue S., Li C., Manahan D., Mann R., Perez-Paralle L., Powell E.N., Rawson P.D., Speiser D., SanchezJ.L., Shumway S. & Wang H. (2017). The proposed dropping of the genus Crassostrea for all Pacific cupped oysters and Its replacement by a new genus Magallana: A dissenting view. Journal of Shellfish Research. 6(3): 545-547., available online at https://doi.org/10.2983/035.036.0301 [details]   

basis of record  (ofCrassostrea talienwhanensis (Crosse, 1862)) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofDioeciostrea hispaniola Orton, 1928) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source  (ofOstraea cymbaeformis G. B. Sowerby II, 1871) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofOstraea cymbaeformis G. B. Sowerby II, 1871) Petit, R. E. (2009). George Brettingham Sowerby, I, II & III: their conchological publications and molluscan taxa. Zootaxa. 2189: 1–218., available online at http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2009/f/z02189p218f.pdf [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (ofOstrea laperousii Schrenck, 1862) Schrenck, L. I. (1862). Vorläufige Diagnosen einiger neuer Molluskenarten aus der Meerenge der Tartarei und dem nord-japanischen Meere. Bulletin de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg. 4: 408-413., available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/33838004
page(s): 411 [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofOstrea laperousii Schrenck, 1862) Coan, E. V.; Valentich-Scott, P. (2012). Bivalve seashells of tropical West America. Marine bivalve mollusks from Baja California to northern Peru. 2 vols, 1258 pp. [details]   

basis of record  (ofOstrea posjetica Razin, 1934) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofOstraea rostralis Lamarck, 1819, sensu G. B. Sowerby II, 1871) Sowerby II, G. B. (1870-1871). Monograph of the genus Ostraea. In: Conchologia Iconica, vol. 18, pl. 1-33 and unpaginated text. L. Reeve & Co., London. [stated date: pl. 2-5, October 1870; pl. 6-13, January 1871; pl. 14-16, February 1871; pl. 17-27, September 1871; pl. 1, 28-33, November 1871]. , available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/8209078
page(s): pl. 10, species 20 [details]   

basis of record  (ofOstraea rostralis Lamarck, 1819, sensu G. B. Sowerby II, 1871) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofLopha posjetica (Razin, 1934)) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofLopha posjetica beringi Vialov, 1946) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofLopha posjetica newelskyi Vialov, 1946) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofLopha posjetica zawoikoi Vialov, 1946) Huber, M. (2010). Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS[details]   

source of synonymy  (ofOstrea chemnitzii var. elongata Grabau & S. G. King, 1928) Coan E.V., Lutaenko K.A., Zhang J.L. [Junlong] & Sun Q.M. [Qimeng]. (2015). The molluscan taxa of A. W. Grabau & S. G. King (1928) and their types. Malacologia. 58(1-2): 179-224., available online at http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.4002/040.058.0206 [details]   

subsequent type designation  (ofOstrea chemnitzii var. elongata Grabau & S. G. King, 1928) Coan E.V., Lutaenko K.A., Zhang J.L. [Junlong] & Sun Q.M. [Qimeng]. (2015). The molluscan taxa of A. W. Grabau & S. G. King (1928) and their types. Malacologia. 58(1-2): 179-224., available online at http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.4002/040.058.0206 [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofOstrea talienwhanensis Crosse, 1862) Coan, E. V.; Valentich-Scott, P. (2012). Bivalve seashells of tropical West America. Marine bivalve mollusks from Baja California to northern Peru. 2 vols, 1258 pp. [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofOstrea gravitesta Yokoyama, 1926) Coan, E. V.; Valentich-Scott, P. (2012). Bivalve seashells of tropical West America. Marine bivalve mollusks from Baja California to northern Peru. 2 vols, 1258 pp. [details]   

basis of record  (ofCrassostrea laperousii (Schrenck, 1862)) Check List of European Marine Mollusca (CLEMAM). , available online at http://www.somali.asso.fr/clemam/index.clemam.html [details]   

basis of record  (ofCrassostrea laperousii (Schrenck, 1862)) Ranson G. (1967) Les espèces d'huîtres vivant actuellement dans le monde, définies par leurs coquilles larvaires ou prodissoconques - Etude des collections de quelques-uns des grands musées d'histoire naturelle. Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes, 31(2): 127-199; 31(3): 205-274., available online at http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1967/publication-3761.pdf
page(s): 154 [details]   

basis of record  (ofCrassostrea posjetica (Razin, 1934)) Check List of European Marine Mollusca (CLEMAM). , available online at http://www.somali.asso.fr/clemam/index.clemam.html [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofCrassostrea posjetica (Razin, 1934)) Nikiforov S.B. (1979). K sistematike ustrits iuzhnogo primoria [in Russian; Systematics of the oysters from the southern marine province]. Biologia Moria. 5(1): 25-33. [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofOstrea gigas var. tientsiensis Grabau & S. G. King, 1928) Coan E.V., Lutaenko K.A., Zhang J.L. [Junlong] & Sun Q.M. [Qimeng]. (2015). The molluscan taxa of A. W. Grabau & S. G. King (1928) and their types. Malacologia. 58(1-2): 179-224., available online at http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.4002/040.058.0206 [details]   

context source (Introduced species) Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. BioInvasions Records. 1: 235-245., available online at http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien 
 

From editor or global species database
Taxonomy The Portuguese oyster Crassostrea angulata and the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas were described as distinct species with widely separated geographical origins - southwestern Europe and Japan respectively. In the 1970's C. gigas was introduced to the Atlantic coast of France in order to restore oyster farming affected by a disease of C. angulata, and it became evident that the two species could hybridize (Menzel, 1974, Huvet et al., 2004) and therefore were treated as synonyms (Huber, 2010).
During the recent years, however, several genetic studies based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data have provided evidence that the two taxa are genetically distinct although closely related (see overview in Batista et al. 2005). Particularly, an average of 2.3% difference in CO1 sequence suggests that populations of C. gigas and C. angulata may have diverged several hundred thousand years ago (Hedgecock et al., 2004). Studies involving microsatellite markers have shown that there are low but clear genetic differences between the two taxons. From all recent studies, it seems clear that the European C. angulata was introduced in the XVI or XVIIth century from Taiwan, and can be recognized genetically from C. gigas introduced later from Japan.
Nevertheless the relationship of both taxa in intermediate locations remains to be elucidated. Lapègue et al. (2004) reported characteristic haplotypes of both C. gigas and C. angulata occurred in a population from northern China locally known as C. talienwhanensis Crosse, 1862; this could either mean that both species are distinct but overlap ranges, or that all those haplotypes are to be found in a single, geographically variable species.
Considering this state of the art, C. angulata and C. gigas are listed here separately but qualified as very closely related and still possibly conspecific.  [details]

From regional or thematic species database
Introduced species abundance in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Common [details]

Introduced species abundance in Danish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Common [details]

Introduced species abundance in Swedish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Common [details]

Introduced species abundance in Norwegian part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Common [details]

Introduced species abundance in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Common [details]

Introduced species abundance in Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea (Marine Region) : Common [details]

Introduced species impact in France (Nation) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Introduced species impact in United Kingdom (Nation) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Introduced species impact in Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea (Marine Region) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Introduced species impact in New Zealand (Nation) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Introduced species impact Angolan part of the South Atlantic Ocean : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Introduced species impact in Germany (Nation) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Introduced species impact in Australia (Nation) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Introduced species impact in New Zealand (Nation) : Adverse habitat modification [details]

Introduced species impact in France (Nation) : Water abstraction or nuisance fouling [details]

Introduced species impact in Mexico (Nation) : Damage to marine structures or archaeology [details]

Introduced species impact in Belgian part of the North Sea : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Introduced species impact in Chile (Nation) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Introduced species impact in New Zealand (Nation) : Alters trophic interactions [details]

Introduced species impact in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Introduced species impact in Maltese part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin : Loss of public/tourist amenity [details]

Introduced species impact in Danish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Introduced species impact in Australia (Nation) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Introduced species impact in North Atlantic Ocean (IHO Sea Area) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Introduced species impact in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Introduced species impact in Swedish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Introduced species impact in Norwegian part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Introduced species management in Australia (Nation) : yes [details]

Introduced species remark in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : The species is considered adaptive & invasive & may compete with local bivalve species for space and food (Diederich 2006; Krassoi et al., 2008 in Wrange et al. 2009). Increased water temperatures over recent decades are believed to have facilitated expan [details]

Introduced species remark in Danish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : The species is considered adaptive & invasive & may compete with local bivalve species for space and food (Diederich 2006; Krassoi et al., 2008 in Wrange et al. 2009). Increased water temperatures over recent decades are believed to have facilitated expan [details]

Introduced species remark In Tunisian part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin (Marine Region) : Populations were generally not self-sustained [details]

Introduced species remark In Swedish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : The species is considered adaptive & invasive & may compete with local bivalve species for space and food (Diederich 2006; Krassoi et al., 2008 in Wrange et al. 2009). Oyster biomass in the Danish Wadden Sea increased from 1056 to 6264 tonnes between 2005-2007. Increased water temperatures over recent decades are believed to have facilitated expansion of the species in Scandinavia. [details]

Introduced species remark In Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : The species is considered adaptive & invasive & may compete with local bivalve species for space and food (Diederich 2006; Krassoi et al., 2008 in Wrange et al. 2009). Oyster biomass in the Danish Wadden Sea increased from 1056 to 6264 tonnes between 2005-2007. Increased water temperatures over recent decades are believed to have facilitated expansion of the species in Scandinavia. [details]

Introduced species remark in Tunisian part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin (Marine Region) : Populations were generally not self-sustained and succesful reproduction was only reported in 2002-2003 for the Bizerte Lagoon [details]

Introduced species remark In Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea (Marine Region) : Crocetta (2011) in Lipej et al. 2012 reported C. gigas from all over the Gulf of Trieste. It is now distributed across the Slovenian coast mainly in the lower mediolittoral belt (De Min & Vio, 1997 in Lipej et al. 2012) especially in canals of salinas.  [details]

Introduced species remark In Norwegian part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : The species is considered adaptive & invasive & may compete with local bivalve species for space and food (Diederich 2006; Krassoi et al., 2008 in Wrange et al. 2009). Oyster biomass in the Danish Wadden Sea increased from 1056 to 6264 tonnes between 2005-2007. Increased water temperatures over recent decades are believed to have facilitated expansion of the species in Scandinavia. [details]

Introduced species remark in Tunisian part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin (Marine Region) : Populations were generally not self-sustained. [details]

Introduced species remark in New Zealand (Nation) : Negatively affects native periwinkle growth, body weight and egg production. Slows down crawling speed, which decreases grazing success. [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Danish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Since the introduction of this species for aquaculture many introduced stocks have established permanent & self sustaining populations in the wild [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Tunisian part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: accidental [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea (Marine Region) : Fisheries: deliberate translocations of fish or shellfish to establish or support fishery [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Maltese part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: deliberate [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Since the introduction of this species for aquaculture many introduced stocks have established permanent & self sustaining populations in the wild [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Tunisian part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: accidental [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Danish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: deliberate [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in France (Nation) : Aquaculture: deliberate [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: deliberate [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Maltese part of the Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin : Aquaculture: deliberate [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Danish part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: deliberate
Since the introduction of this species for aquaculture many introduced stocks have established permanent & self sustaining populations in the wild [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Norwegian part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: deliberate
Since the introduction of this species for aquaculture many introduced stocks have established permanent & self sustaining populations in the wild [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Swedish part of the Kattegat (Marine Region) : Aquaculture: deliberate
Since the introduction of this species for aquaculture many introduced stocks have established permanent & self sustaining populations in the wild [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in France (Nation) : Aquaculture: deliberate [details]

From other sources
Alien species The Pacific cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas, seen by many people as a delicacy, was imported to Belgium in 1969 as an alternative to the failing farming of the local common oyster. It was originally thought that the species would not be able to reproduce here because of the cold climate. However, this proved to be incorrect. The Pacific cupped oyster is comfortable in Belgian waters and is able to attach itself to all kinds of hard substrates (dikes, groins, mussel banks…), while competing with mussels and other local shellfish for available space and food.  [details]

Synonymy Until recently Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea angulata were taken as two separate species. According to Menzel (1974), Mathers et al. (1974), Buroker et al. (1979) and Thirot-Quievreux (1984) this is no longer tenable. [details]
 

LanguageName 
Catalan ostra japonesa  [details]
Dutch Japanse oester  [details]
English Portuguese oysterPacific cupped oysterJapanese oysterimmigrant oystergiant pacific oystergiant oystergiant cupped oyster  [details]
French huître portugaisehuître japonaisehuître du Pacifiquehuître creuse japonaisehuître creuse du Pacifiquehuître creuse  [details]
German Portugiesische AusterPazifische FelsenausterPazifische AusterJapanische AusterFelsenauster  [details]
Italian ostrica giapponeseostrica del Pacificoostrica concava  [details]
Japanese マガキ  [details]
Modern Greek (1453-) Στρείδι Πορτογαλίας  [details]
Portuguese ostra-gigante  [details]
Spanish ostra japonesaostión del Pacíficoostión  [details]
Swedish Japanskt jätteostron  [details]