WoRMS source details

Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio. 2013. Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae). ZooKeys 286(0): 1-74
167231
Publication
World Polychaeta Database (WPolyDb). Open access journal
Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, S. thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, S. affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, S. africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, S. andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, S. costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, S. fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, S. islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, S. maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, S. princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, S. rietschi Caullery, 1944 from abyssal depths around Indonesia, S. scutata (Ranzani, 1817) from the Mediterranean Sea, S. spinosa Sluiter, 1882 from Indonesia, and S. thorsoni sp. n. from the Iranian Gulf. Two genera are newly proposed to incorporate the remaining species: Caulleryaspis and Petersenaspis. Caulleryaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of falcate introvert hooks, seven abdominal segments, and soft shields with sediment particles firmly adhered on them; it includes two species: C. gudmundssoni sp. n. from Iceland and C. laevis (Caullery, 1944) comb. n. from Indonesia. Petersenaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of spatulate introvert hooks, eight abdominal segments, and stiff shields with poorly defined ribs but no concentric line; it includes P. capillata (Nonato, 1966) from Brazil and P. palpallatoci sp. n. from the Philippines. Neotypes are proposed for eight species: S. thalassemoides, S. affinis, S. africana, S. costata, S. fossor, S. maior, S. scutata and S. spinosa, to stabilize these species-group names, and a lectotype is designated for S. laevis which is transferred to Caulleryaspis gen. n. The geographic range of most species appears to be much smaller than previously indicated, and for some species additional material in good condition is needed to clarify their distributions. Keys to genera and to all species are also included.
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2013-04-09 02:24:26Z
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Caulleryaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 (original description)
Caulleryaspis gudmundssoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 (original description)
Petersenaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 (original description)
Petersenaspis capillata (Nonato, 1966) (original description)
Petersenaspis palpallatoci Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 (original description)
Sternaspidae Carus, 1863 (identification resource)
Sternaspis Otto, 1820 (taxonomy source)
Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864 (redescription)
Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918 (redescription)
Sternaspis andamanensis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 (original description)
Sternaspis assimilis Malmgren, 1867 accepted as Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1820 (source of synonymy)
Sternaspis costata Marenzeller, 1879 (status source)
Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1854 (redescription)
Sternaspis fossor africana Augener, 1918 accepted as Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918 (taxonomy source)
Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867 (redescription)
Sternaspis laevis Caullery, 1944 accepted as Caulleryaspis laevis (Caullery, 1944) (new combination reference)
Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919 (redescription)
Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 (redescription)
Sternaspis rietschi Caullery, 1944 (redescription)
Sternaspis scutata (Ranzani, 1817) (redescription)
Sternaspis spinosa Sluiter, 1882 (redescription)
Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1820 (status source)
Sternaspis thorsoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 (original description)
Thalassema scutatus Ranzani, 1817 accepted as Sternaspis scutata (Ranzani, 1817) (status source)
Angolan part of the South Atlantic Ocean for Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918 
East Cape (North Island) for Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 
Gulf of Naples for Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1820 
Gulf of Oman for Sternaspis thorsoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 
Indonesia for Sternaspis rietschi Caullery, 1944 
Kalibo Town for Petersenaspis palpallatoci Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 
Thailand part of the Andaman or Burma Sea for Sternaspis andamanensis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 
Vestmannaeyjar for Caulleryaspis gudmundssoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 
Neotype CMNH CMNH ZW-120, locality Honshu Island, identified as Sternaspis costata Marenzeller, 1879
Holotype IMNH IMNH 10280, locality Icelandic Exclusive Economic Zone, identified as Caulleryaspis gudmundssoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013
Holotype MNHN MNHN 1551, identified as Petersenaspis palpallatoci Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013
Syntype BMNH NHM 1885.12.3.1, identified as Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885
Neotype BM NHM 1889.6.15.52-36, identified as Sternaspis spinosa Sluiter, 1882
Neotype BM NHM 1930.10.8.2582, identified as Sternaspis fossor africana Augener, 1918
Neotype RBCPM RBCM 005- 138-001, identified as Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864
Syntype SMNH SMNH 5135, identified as Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867
Neotype UNAM UNAM 7882, identified as Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919
Neotype USNM USNM 15543, locality Nova Scotia, identified as Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1854
Holotype ZMA ZMA 1500, identified as Sternaspis rietschi Caullery, 1944
Holotype ZMUC ZMUC 2221, identified as Sternaspis thorsoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013
Neotype ZMC ZMUC POL-2159, locality Tyrrhenian Sea, identified as Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1820
English gooseberry worm for Sternaspidae Carus, 1863
English mud-owl for Sternaspidae Carus, 1863
 Classification

[From Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo (2013:18)] "An analysis of morphology and six genes (Zrzavý et al. 2009) did not ... [details]

 Diagnosis

"Sternaspids with introvert hooks tapered. Pre-shield region with 7 segments. Ventro-caudal shield flexible with ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Shield with anterior margin truncate; fan with median notch. [details]

 Diagnosis

Sternaspids with introvert hooks subdistally expanded. Pre-shield region with 8 segments. Ventro-caudal shield ... [details]

 Distribution

"Apparently restricted to the Norwegian Sea and Northeast Atlantic Ocean around Iceland and the Faroe Islands, ... [details]

 Distribution

"Southern Sakhalin Island (Russia), Japan, and the Philippines, 20–70 m depth. The record for estuarine ... [details]

 Distribution

Arabian Sea, in muddy bottoms in shallow water (3–110 m). Probably reaching as far as the Andaman Sea. [details]

 Distribution

Known from two locations: Thailand in the Andaman Sea and Malaysia in the South China Sea, 5–45 m depth. [details]

 Distribution

Neotype locality off coast of Turkey (see Thalassema scutatus for details). Reported global distributions are ... [details]

 Distribution

Only known from Central and Southern Brazilian localities, in 52–138 m depth. Omena and Amaral (1997) recorded ... [details]

 Distribution

Philippine Islands to Malasya, in 5.5–93 m depth [details]

 Etymology

after Dr. Gudmundur Gudmundsson, from the Iceland Natural History Museum. The epithet is a noun in the genitive case, [details]

 Etymology

genus name is to honor Dr Mary E. Petersen, in recognition of her many studies of polychaetes, including a valuable ... [details]

 Etymology

Honors Dr Maurice Caullery, in recognition of his studies on polychaete reproductive biology and taxonomy, and ... [details]

 Etymology

Named for the Andaman Sea, Thailand [details]

 Etymology

Named for the collector, Gunnar Thorson. [details]

 Etymology

Named for Virgilio S. Palpal-latoc, researcher of the National Museum, Manila. Epithet a noun in genitive case. [details]

 Morphology

"Sternaspis spinosa Sluiter, 1882 has been in doubt ever since the original description because it was described ... [details]

 Neotype

Original type series of S. fossor var. africana Augener, 1918 came from widespread West African localities, but it ... [details]

 Neotype

There is no original type material available (Petersen 2000:321), but Sluiter identified some other specimens from ... [details]

 Spelling

The original spelling in Langerhans was as 'graffii', genitive based on a personal name (Ludwig von Graff), and ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Reinstated as valid by Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo (2013). There are no prior modern records, and "Sternaspis ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Stated that "S. assimilis shield is more similar to the one of S. thalassemoides [than S. scutata] because their ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Status change to species level by Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo (2013) [details]

 Type locality

Andaman Sea, Thailand, 7 N, 99.25 E, 45 m. Geolocation is erroneously given as 7 degrees South, but this clearly ... [details]

 Type locality

designated by neotype locality, 49.1797222, -123.3005556, is Straits of Georgia, Canada. The original type locality ... [details]

 Type locality

Designated by neotype as 88 km E Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, 153 m, no geolocation data given. Original holotype type ... [details]

 Type locality

Designated by neotype locality from off Isla Altamura, Sinaloa, Gulf of California, 830 m, 24.8666667, ... [details]

 Type locality

E off Kalibo, Philippines, 11.71, 122.525, 93 m. [details]

 Type locality

Off southeast of Vestmannaey jar, Iceland, 1072 m. [details]

 Type locality

Offshore from East Cape, North Island, New Zealand, 1274 m, -37.5666667, 179.3666667 [details]

 Type locality

Offshore near Jask, Iran, 25.75, 57.2, 110 m [details]

 Type locality

re-designated by neotype as Izmar Bay, Turkey. Original type locality "ad litora maris Adriatici" (Shores of the ... [details]

 Type locality

Tyrrhenian Sea, Bay of Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No point geolocation available. [details]

 Type locality

West of Wokam Island, Indonesia, 5°46'S,134°00'E (-5.7666, 134), 1788 m. [details]

 Type material

"The original material was deposited in the Smithsonian and later transferred to Chicago when William Stimpson was ... [details]

 Type specimen

"The holotype is in poor condition with most of the cuticle missing, exposing the musculature below. It is a large ... [details]

 Type specimen

Holotype believed lost. [details]