WoRMS source details

Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio. 2013. Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae). ZooKeys 286(0): 1-74
167231
Publication
World Polychaeta Database (WPolyDb). Open access journal
Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, S. thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, S. affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, S. africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, S. andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, S. costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, S. fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, S. islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, S. maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, S. princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, S. rietschi Caullery, 1944 from abyssal depths around Indonesia, S. scutata (Ranzani, 1817) from the Mediterranean Sea, S. spinosa Sluiter, 1882 from Indonesia, and S. thorsoni sp. n. from the Iranian Gulf. Two genera are newly proposed to incorporate the remaining species: Caulleryaspis and Petersenaspis. Caulleryaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of falcate introvert hooks, seven abdominal segments, and soft shields with sediment particles firmly adhered on them; it includes two species: C. gudmundssoni sp. n. from Iceland and C. laevis (Caullery, 1944) comb. n. from Indonesia. Petersenaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of spatulate introvert hooks, eight abdominal segments, and stiff shields with poorly defined ribs but no concentric line; it includes P. capillata (Nonato, 1966) from Brazil and P. palpallatoci sp. n. from the Philippines. Neotypes are proposed for eight species: S. thalassemoides, S. affinis, S. africana, S. costata, S. fossor, S. maior, S. scutata and S. spinosa, to stabilize these species-group names, and a lectotype is designated for S. laevis which is transferred to Caulleryaspis gen. n. The geographic range of most species appears to be much smaller than previously indicated, and for some species additional material in good condition is needed to clarify their distributions. Keys to genera and to all species are also included.
Date
action
by
2013-04-09 02:24:26Z
created

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCaulleryaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCaulleryaspis gudmundssoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetersenaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetersenaspis capillata (Nonato, 1966) (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetersenaspis palpallatoci Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspidae Carus, 1863 (identification resource)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis Otto, 1820 (taxonomy source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864 (redescription)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis africana Augener, 1918 (redescription)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis andamanensis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis assimilis Malmgren, 1867 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1820 (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis costata Marenzeller, 1879 (status source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1854 (redescription)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis fossor africana Augener, 1918 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis africana Augener, 1918 (taxonomy source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867 (redescription)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis laevis Caullery, 1944 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCaulleryaspis laevis (Caullery, 1944) (new combination reference)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919 (redescription)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 (redescription)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis rietschi Caullery, 1944 (redescription)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis scutata (Ranzani, 1817) (redescription)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis spinosa Sluiter, 1882 (redescription)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1820 (status source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis thorsoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorThalassema scutatus Ranzani, 1817 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis scutata (Ranzani, 1817) (status source)
Angolan part of the South Atlantic Ocean for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis africana Augener, 1918 
East Cape (North Island) for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 
Gulf of Naples for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1820 
Gulf of Oman for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis thorsoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 
Indonesia for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis rietschi Caullery, 1944 
Kalibo Town for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetersenaspis palpallatoci Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 
Thailand part of the Andaman or Burma Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspis andamanensis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 
Vestmannaeyjar for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCaulleryaspis gudmundssoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 
Neotype CMNH CMNH ZW-120, locality Honshu Island, identified as Sternaspis costata Marenzeller, 1879
Holotype IMNH IMNH 10280, locality Icelandic Exclusive Economic Zone, identified as Caulleryaspis gudmundssoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013
Holotype MNHN MNHN 1551, identified as Petersenaspis palpallatoci Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013
Syntype BMNH NHM 1885.12.3.1, identified as Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885
Neotype BM NHM 1889.6.15.52-36, identified as Sternaspis spinosa Sluiter, 1882
Neotype BM NHM 1930.10.8.2582, identified as Sternaspis fossor africana Augener, 1918
Neotype RBCPM RBCM 005- 138-001, identified as Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864
Syntype SMNH SMNH 5135, identified as Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867
Neotype UNAM UNAM 7882, identified as Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919
Neotype USNM USNM 15543, locality Nova Scotia, identified as Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1854
Holotype ZMA ZMA 1500, identified as Sternaspis rietschi Caullery, 1944
Holotype ZMUC ZMUC 2221, identified as Sternaspis thorsoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013
Neotype ZMC ZMUC POL-2159, locality Tyrrhenian Sea, identified as Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1820
English Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorgooseberry worm for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspidae Carus, 1863
English Checked: verified by a taxonomic editormud-owl for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSternaspidae Carus, 1863
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Classification

[From Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo (2013:18)] "An analysis of morphology and six genes (Zrzavý et al. 2009) did not ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Diagnosis

"Sternaspids with introvert hooks tapered. Pre-shield region with 7 segments. Ventro-caudal shield flexible with ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Diagnosis

Shield with anterior margin truncate; fan with median notch. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Diagnosis

Sternaspids with introvert hooks subdistally expanded. Pre-shield region with 8 segments. Ventro-caudal shield ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

"Apparently restricted to the Norwegian Sea and Northeast Atlantic Ocean around Iceland and the Faroe Islands, ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

"Southern Sakhalin Island (Russia), Japan, and the Philippines, 20–70 m depth. The record for estuarine ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

Arabian Sea, in muddy bottoms in shallow water (3–110 m). Probably reaching as far as the Andaman Sea. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

Known from two locations: Thailand in the Andaman Sea and Malaysia in the South China Sea, 5–45 m depth. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

Neotype locality off coast of Turkey (see Thalassema scutatus for details). Reported global distributions are ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

Only known from Central and Southern Brazilian localities, in 52–138 m depth. Omena and Amaral (1997) recorded ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

Philippine Islands to Malasya, in 5.5–93 m depth [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Etymology

after Dr. Gudmundur Gudmundsson, from the Iceland Natural History Museum. The epithet is a noun in the genitive case, [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Etymology

genus name is to honor Dr Mary E. Petersen, in recognition of her many studies of polychaetes, including a valuable ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Etymology

Honors Dr Maurice Caullery, in recognition of his studies on polychaete reproductive biology and taxonomy, and ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Etymology

Named for the Andaman Sea, Thailand [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Etymology

Named for the collector, Gunnar Thorson. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Etymology

Named for Virgilio S. Palpal-latoc, researcher of the National Museum, Manila. Epithet a noun in genitive case. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Morphology

"Sternaspis spinosa Sluiter, 1882 has been in doubt ever since the original description because it was described ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Neotype

Original type series of S. fossor var. africana Augener, 1918 came from widespread West African localities, but it ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Neotype

There is no original type material available (Petersen 2000:321), but Sluiter identified some other specimens from ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Spelling

The original spelling in Langerhans was as 'graffii', genitive based on a personal name (Ludwig von Graff), and ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Taxonomy

Reinstated as valid by Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo (2013). There are no prior modern records, and "Sternaspis ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Taxonomy

Stated that "S. assimilis shield is more similar to the one of S. thalassemoides [than S. scutata] because their ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Taxonomy

Status change to species level by Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo (2013) [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type locality

Andaman Sea, Thailand, 7 N, 99.25 E, 45 m. Geolocation is erroneously given as 7 degrees South, but this clearly ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type locality

designated by neotype locality, 49.1797222, -123.3005556, is Straits of Georgia, Canada. The original type locality ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type locality

Designated by neotype as 88 km E Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, 153 m, no geolocation data given. Original holotype type ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type locality

Designated by neotype locality from off Isla Altamura, Sinaloa, Gulf of California, 830 m, 24.8666667, ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type locality

E off Kalibo, Philippines, 11.71, 122.525, 93 m. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type locality

Off southeast of Vestmannaey jar, Iceland, 1072 m. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type locality

Offshore from East Cape, North Island, New Zealand, 1274 m, -37.5666667, 179.3666667 [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type locality

Offshore near Jask, Iran, 25.75, 57.2, 110 m [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type locality

re-designated by neotype as Izmar Bay, Turkey. Original type locality "ad litora maris Adriatici" (Shores of the ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type locality

Tyrrhenian Sea, Bay of Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No point geolocation available. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type locality

West of Wokam Island, Indonesia, 5°46'S,134°00'E (-5.7666, 134), 1788 m. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type material

"The original material was deposited in the Smithsonian and later transferred to Chicago when William Stimpson was ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type specimen

"The holotype is in poor condition with most of the cuticle missing, exposing the musculature below. It is a large ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Type specimen

Holotype believed lost. [details]