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Zenetos, A.; Gofas, S.; Verlaque, M.; Cinar, M.; Garcia Raso, J.; Bianchi, C.; Morri, C.; Azzurro, E.; Bilecenoglu, M.; Froglia, C.; Siokou, I.; Violanti, D.; Sfriso, A.; San Martin, G.; Giangrande, A.; Katagan, T.; Ballesteros, E.; Ramos-Espla, A.; Mastrototaro, F.; Ocana, O.; Zingone, A.; Gambi, M.; Streftaris, N. (2010). Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution. Mediterranean Marine Science. 11(2): 381-493.
155063
10.12681/mms.87 [view]
Zenetos, A.; Gofas, S.; Verlaque, M.; Cinar, M.; Garcia Raso, J.; Bianchi, C.; Morri, C.; Azzurro, E.; Bilecenoglu, M.; Froglia, C.; Siokou, I.; Violanti, D.; Sfriso, A.; San Martin, G.; Giangrande, A.; Katagan, T.; Ballesteros, E.; Ramos-Espla, A.; Mastrototaro, F.; Ocana, O.; Zingone, A.; Gambi, M.; Streftaris, N.
2010
Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution
Mediterranean Marine Science
11(2): 381-493
Publication
The state-of-art on alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is presented, making distinctions among the four subregions defined in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive: (i) the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED); (ii) the Central Mediterranean Sea (CMED); (iii) the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA); and (iv) the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED). The updated checklist (December 2010) of marine alien species within each subregion, along with their acclimatization status and origin, is provided. A total of 955 alien species is known in the Mediterranean, the vast majority of them having being introduced in the EMED (718), less in the WMED (328) and CMED (267) and least in the Adriatic (171). Of these, 535 species (56%) are established in at least one area. Despite the collective effort of experts who attempted in this work, the number of introduced species remains probably underestimated. Excluding microalgae, for which knowledge is still insufficient, aliens have increased the total species richness of the Mediterranean Sea by 5.9%. This figure should not be directly read as an indication of higher biodiversity, as spreading of so many aliens within the basin is possibly causing biotic homogenization. Thermophilic species, i.e. Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Tropical Atlantic, Tropical Pacific, and circum(sub)tropical, account for 88.4% of the introduced species in the EMED, 72.8% in the CMED, 59.3% in the WMED and 56.1% in the Adriatic. Cold water species, i.e. circumboreal, N Atlantic, and N Pacific, make up a small percentage of the introduced species, ranging between 4.2% and 21.6% and being more numerous in the Adriatic and less so in the EMED. Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 75 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.
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Acabaria erythraea (Ehrenberg, 1834) accepted as Melithaea erythraea (Ehrenberg, 1834) (additional source)
Acanthaster planci (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Acanthophora nayadiformis (Delile) Papenfuss, 1968 (additional source)
Acanthopleura gemmata (Blainville, 1825) (additional source)
Acanthurus monroviae Steindachner, 1876 (additional source)
Acar plicata (Dillwyn, 1817) (additional source)
Acartia (Odontacartia) centrura Giesbrecht, 1889 (additional source)
Acrochaetium codicola Børgesen, 1927 accepted as Colaconema codicola (Børgesen) Stegenga, J.J.Bolton & R.J.Anderson, 1997 (additional source)
Acrochaetium subseriatum Børgesen, 1932 (additional source)
Acrothamnion preissii (Sonder) E.M.Wollaston, 1968 (additional source)
Actumnus globulus Heller, 1861 (additional source)
Aequorea conica Browne, 1905 (additional source)
Aeverrillia setigera (Hincks, 1887) (additional source)
Agardhiella subulata (C.Agardh) Kraft & M.J.Wynne, 1979 (additional source)
Agglutinella soriformis El-Nakhal, 1983 (additional source)
Aidanosagitta neglecta (Aida, 1897) (additional source)
Alpheus audouini Coutière, 1905 accepted as Alpheus edwardsii (Audouin, 1826) (additional source)
Alpheus inopinatus Holthuis & Gottlieb, 1958 (additional source)
Alpheus migrans Lewinsohn & Holthuis, 1978 (additional source)
Alpheus rapacida de Man, 1908 (additional source)
Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Alvania dorbignyi (Audouin, 1826) (additional source)
Amathina tricarinata (Linnaeus, 1767) (additional source)
Amphioplus (Lymanella) laevis (Lyman, 1874) (additional source)
Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg, 1839 (additional source)
Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny in Guérin-Méneville, 1832 (additional source)
Amphistegina madagascariensis d'Orbigny in Fornasini, 1903 accepted as Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny in Guérin-Méneville, 1832 (additional source)
Anadara natalensis (Krauss, 1848) (additional source)
Anadara transversa (Say, 1822) (additional source)
Angiola punctostriata (E. A. Smith, 1872) (additional source)
Antigona lamellaris Schumacher, 1817 (additional source)
Antithamnion hubbsii E.Y.Dawson, 1962 (additional source)
Antithamnionella elegans (Berthold) J.H.Price & D.M.John, 1986 (additional source)
Antithamnionella spirographidis (Schiffner) E.M.Wollaston, 1968 (additional source)
Antithamnionella ternifolia (J.D.Hooker & Harvey) Lyle, 1922 (additional source)
Apanthura sandalensis Stebbing, 1900 (additional source)
Apoglossum gregarium (E.Y.Dawson) M.J.Wynne, 1985 (additional source)
Apogon fasciatus (White, 1790) accepted as Ostorhinchus fasciatus (White, 1790) (additional source)
Aquilonastra burtoni (Gray, 1840) (additional source)
Ashtoret lunaris (Forskål, 1775) (additional source)
Asparagopsis armata Harvey, 1855 (additional source)
Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan de Saint-Léon, 1845 (additional source)
Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) elegans (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821) (additional source)
Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Atactodea glabrata (Gmelin, 1791) accepted as Atactodea striata (Gmelin, 1791) (additional source)
Atergatis roseus (Rüppell, 1830) (additional source)
Atys cylindricus (Helbling, 1779) accepted as Aliculastrum cylindricum (Helbling, 1779) (additional source)
Balanus trigonus Darwin, 1854 (additional source)
Beryx splendens Lowe, 1834 (additional source)
Botryocladia madagascariensis G.Feldmann, 1945 (additional source)
Bougainvillia niobe Mayer, 1894 (additional source)
Brizalina simpsoni (Heron-Allen & Earland, 1915) accepted as Bolivina simpsoni Heron-Allen & Earland, 1915 (additional source)
Bursatella leachii Blainville, 1817 (additional source)
Calanopia elliptica (Dana, 1849) (additional source)
Calanopia minor Scott A., 1902 (additional source)
Calappa hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Calappa pelii Herklots, 1851 (additional source)
Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 (additional source)
Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 (additional source)
Callista florida (Lamarck, 1818) (additional source)
Canarium mutabile (Swainson, 1821) (additional source)
Capitellethus dispar (Ehlers, 1907) (additional source)
Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836 (additional source)
Carcharhinus altimus (Springer, 1950) (additional source)
Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle, 1839) (additional source)
Carupa tenuipes Dana, 1852 (additional source)
Cassiopea andromeda (Forsskål, 1775) (additional source)
Caulerpa mexicana Sonder ex Kützing, 1849 (additional source)
Caulerpa scalpelliformis (R.Brown ex Turner) C.Agardh, 1817 (additional source)
Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh, 1817 (additional source)
Cellana rota (Gmelin, 1791) (additional source)
Celleporaria aperta (Hincks, 1882) (additional source)
Celleporaria pilaefera (Canu & Bassler, 1929) (additional source)
Centropages furcatus (Dana, 1849) (additional source)
Ceratonereis mirabilis Kinberg, 1865 (additional source)
Cerithidium perparvulum (R. B. Watson, 1886) (additional source)
Cerithium columna G. B. Sowerby I, 1834 (additional source)
Cerithium egenum Gould, 1849 (additional source)
Cerithium litteratum (Born, 1778) (additional source)
Cerithium nesioticum Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1906 (additional source)
Cerithium nodulosum Bruguière, 1792 (additional source)
Cerithium scabridum Philippi, 1848 (additional source)
Chama asperella Lamarck, 1819 (additional source)
Chama aspersa Reeve, 1846, sensu Spry (1964) accepted as Chama asperella Lamarck, 1819 (additional source)
Chama pacifica Broderip, 1835 (additional source)
Champsodon nudivittis (Ogilby, 1895) (additional source)
Charybdis (Charybdis) feriata (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Charybdis (Charybdis) hellerii (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867) (additional source)
Charybdis (Charybdis) japonica (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861) (additional source)
Charybdis (Charybdis) lucifera (Fabricius, 1798) (additional source)
Charybdis (Goniohellenus) longicollis Leene, 1938 (additional source)
Chaunax suttkusi Caruso, 1989 (additional source)
Cheilodipterus novemstriatus (Rüppell, 1838) (additional source)
Cheilopogon furcatus (Mitchill, 1815) (additional source)
Chelidonura fulvipunctata Baba, 1938 accepted as Biuve fulvipunctata (Baba, 1938) (additional source)
Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Chirocentrus dorab (Forsskål, 1775) (additional source)
Chiton hululensis (E. A. Smith, 1903) accepted as Tegulaplax hululensis (E. A. Smith, 1903) (additional source)
Chondria coerulescens (J.Agardh) Falkenberg, 1901 accepted as Chondria coerulescens (J.Agardh) Sauvageau, 1897 (additional source)
Chromodoris annulata Eliot, 1904 accepted as Goniobranchus annulatus (Eliot, 1904) (additional source)