Several lithistid sponges are described from Mediterranean caves occurring in the northwestern and Adriatic
basins. In the Corallistidae, Neoschrammeniella bowerbanki and Neophrissospongia nolitangere are recorded for the first
time from the Mediterranean, whereas Neophrissospongia radjae n. sp. and Neophrissospongia endoumensis n. sp. are
described as new. In the Theonellidae, the common sponge previously identified as Discodermia polydiscus is described as
Discodermia polymorpha n. sp. Fossil specimens from the 3PP cave are tentatively attributed to Neoschrammeniella bower-
banki. The distribution and affinities of this lithistid fauna are discussed.