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Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 41: 47-114.
4179
Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M
2003
Antarctic marine benthic diversity
Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review
41: 47-114
Publication
An unpublished species checklist compiled for background to this paper was used as basis for the Register of Antarctic Marine Species. The paper itself contains no species lists.
Ant'Phipoda Literature database.
Species lists have been compiled for all the major groups of Southern Ocean benthic marine invertebrates, eliminating synonymies where possible and providing a subjective estimate of completeness and reliability for each group. Antarctic marine diversity (pelagic and benthic) is relatively high at the phylum and class level, with the gaps mostly comprising minor, meiofaunal or parasitic groups. Most benthic diversity data come from the continental shelves, with relatively few samples from deeper water. Even for the continental shelves, however, sampling is highly patchy with some areas hardly investigated at all. Over 4100 benthic species have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with the most speciose groups being polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. Comparison with tropical and temperate regions suggest that decapods, bivalves and teleost fishes are poorly represented in the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna, whereas pycnogonids, echinoderms and many suspension feeding groups are rich and diverse. Some groups that are currently low in diversity were previously well represented in the Antarctic shallow water marine fauna, notably decapods and many fishes. Other groups have undergone marked radiations in the Southern Ocean, including pycnogonids, amphipods, isopods and teleost fishes; in all cases, however, it is only some lineages that have diversified. This indicates that evolutionary questions concerning the origin, diversification or extinction of the Southern Ocean marine fauna will have no single answer; the evolutionary history of each group appears to reflect a different response to the tectonic, climatic and oceanographic changes to which they have been subject through history. The disposition of southern hemisphere continents makes it difficult to assess whether there is a latitudinal cline in shallow-water marine diversity to mirror that known from the northern hemisphere. Within Antarctica, many species appear to have circumpolar distributions, and the long established biogeographical division into continental Antarctic, Antarctic Peninsula and sub-Antarctic regions have not been challenged by recent sampling. For most groups the frequency distribution of species per genus ratios is typical, though none is well described by the predictions from current evolutionary or null models. Where data are available, size spectra indicate that many Southern Ocean taxa are small, a few spectacular examples of gigantism notwithstanding, and species abundance plots are normal. Knowledge of the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna has reached a stage where we can now ask powerful evolutionary questions, and the development of new molecular techniques provides the mechanism for answering them
Antarctic
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Acanthomunna spinipes (Vanhöffen, 1914) (basis of record)
Acanthopriapulus van der Land, 1970 (basis of record)
Acanthopriapulus horridus (Théel, 1911) (basis of record)
Achelia communis (Bouvier, 1906) (basis of record)
Achelia parvula (Loman, 1923) (basis of record)
Achelia serratipalpis (Bouvier, 1911) (basis of record)
Amphiodia Verrill, 1899 (basis of record)
Amphiura (Amphiura) angularis Lyman, 1879 (basis of record)
Anaitides madeirensis (Langerhans, 1880) accepted as Phyllodoce madeirensis Langerhans, 1880 (basis of record)
Anapta Semper, 1867 (basis of record)
Anguloscalpellum Zevina, 1978 (basis of record)
Anophiura H.L. Clark, 1939 (basis of record)
Anoplodactylus australis (Hodgson, 1914) (basis of record)
Antarcturus zur Strassen, 1902 (basis of record)
Antias Richardson, 1906 accepted as Santia Sivertsen & Holthuis, 1980 (basis of record)
Arachnopusiidae Jullien, 1888 (additional source)
Ascorhynchus inflatum Stock, 1963 accepted as Ascorhynchus inflatus Stock, 1963 (basis of record)
Axociella Hallmann, 1920 accepted as Clathria (Axosuberites) Topsent, 1893 (additional source)
Beania Johnston, 1840 (additional source)
Beaniidae Canu & Bassler, 1927 (additional source)
Betamorpha indentifrons (Menzies, 1962) (basis of record)
Biemna polyphylla Lévi, 1963 (additional source)
Bryozoa (additional source)
Bugula Oken, 1815 (additional source)
Bugulidae Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Cabereidae Busk, 1852 accepted as Candidae d'Orbigny, 1851 (additional source)
Callipallene margarita (Gordon, 1932) (basis of record)
Calloporidae Norman, 1903 (additional source)
Celleporidae Johnston, 1838 (additional source)
Ceratonereis (Composetia) Hartmann-Schröder, 1985 represented as Composetia Hartmann-Schröder, 1985 (basis of record)
Chaperiidae Jullien, 1888 (additional source)
Chaperiopsis Uttley, 1949 (additional source)
Cheilostomatida (additional source)
Chondrocladia (Chondrocladia) clavata Ridley & Dendy, 1886 (additional source)
Cilunculus acanthus Fry & Hedgpeth, 1969 (basis of record)
Colanthura Richardson, 1902 (basis of record)
Colossendeis megalonyx Hoek, 1881 (basis of record)
Conchoderma auritum (Linnaeus, 1767) (additional source)
Corella eumyota Traustedt, 1882 (basis of record)
Coronula reginae Darwin, 1854 (basis of record)
Cosmasterias Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Crella (Pytheas) Topsent, 1890 (additional source)
Cribrilinidae Hincks, 1879 (additional source)
Cryptophialidae Gerstaecker, 1866 (basis of record)
Cryptophialus Darwin, 1854 (basis of record)
Cymodocella Pfeffer, 1887 (basis of record)
Desmacella vestibularis (Wilson, 1904) (additional source)
Desmacidon ramosum Ridley & Dendy, 1886 accepted as Fibulia ramosa (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (additional source)
Ectias Richardson, 1906 (additional source)
Ectyomyxilla Hentschel, 1914 accepted as Myxilla (Ectyomyxilla) Hentschel, 1914 (additional source)
Electra Lamouroux, 1816 (additional source)
Electridae d'Orbigny, 1851 (additional source)
Escharella Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Escharoides Milne Edwards, 1836 (additional source)
Esperiopsis informis Stephens, 1915 accepted as Amphilectus informis (Stephens, 1915) (additional source)
Esperiopsis rugosa Thiele, 1905 accepted as Amphilectus rugosus (Thiele, 1905) (additional source)
Eumorphometra Clark, 1915 (additional source)
Euscalpellum Hoek, 1907 (basis of record)
Exochellidae Bassler, 1935 (additional source)
Exogone heterosetosa McIntosh, 1885 (additional source)
Fenestrulina Jullien, 1888 (additional source)
Flustridae Fleming, 1828 (additional source)
Golfingia (Golfingia) Lankester, 1885 (basis of record)
Golfingia (Golfingia) elongata (Keferstein, 1862) (basis of record)
Golfingia (Golfingia) margaritacea (Sars, 1851) (basis of record)
Gymnolaemata (additional source)
Haliclona (Reniera) topsenti (Thiele, 1905) (additional source)
Harmothoe benthophila Ehlers, 1913 (basis of record)
Harmothoe lagiscoides Willey, 1902 accepted as Harmothoe crosetensis (McIntosh, 1885) (additional source)
Helicosiphon Gravier, 1907 (basis of record)
Hippopodinidae Levinsen, 1909 (additional source)
Hippothoidae Busk, 1859 (additional source)
Homaxinella flagelliformis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (basis of record)
Hornera Lamouroux, 1821 (additional source)
Iais Bovallius, 1886 (additional source)
Iais pubescens (Dana, 1853) (basis of record)
Iathrippa Bovallius, 1886 (basis of record)
Iathrippa longicauda (Chilton, 1884) (basis of record)
Idmonea Lamouroux, 1821 (additional source)
Iolanthe Beddard, 1886 (basis of record)
Iophon chelifer Ridley & Dendy, 1886 accepted as Iophon cheliferum Ridley & Dendy, 1886 (additional source)
Iophon proximum (Ridley, 1881) (additional source)
Isodictya conulosa (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (additional source)
Isodictya erinacea (Topsent, 1916) (additional source)
Isodictya kerguelenensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (additional source)
Isodictya setifera (Topsent, 1901) (additional source)
Isometra AH Clark, 1908 (additional source)
Isometra vivipara Mortensen, 1917 (basis of record)
Klugeflustra Moyano, 1972 (basis of record)
Klugerella Moyano, 1991 (basis of record)
Lacernidae Jullien, 1888 (additional source)
Latrunculia biformis Kirkpatrick, 1908 represented as Latrunculia (Latrunculia) biformis Kirkpatrick, 1908 (additional source)
Latrunculia brevis Ridley & Dendy, 1886 represented as Latrunculia (Latrunculia) brevis Ridley & Dendy, 1886 (additional source)
Lepas australis Darwin, 1851 represented as Lepas (Anatifa) australis Darwin, 1851 (basis of record)
Lepraliellidae Vigneaux, 1949 (additional source)
Limnoriidae White, 1850 (additional source)
Lineidae (additional source)
Lumbrineris magalhaensis Kinberg, 1865 (basis of record)
Macrostylis G. O. Sars, 1864 (additional source)
Micropora Gray, 1848 (additional source)