HABs note details

Harmful effect
The taxonomy of the genus Gambierdiscus has undergone drastic changes and many reports of toxicity using the name Gambierdiscus toxicus have been shown to refer to other species. G. toxicus is, however, toxic, material with significant maitotoxicity as assessed by mouse bioassay has been found in Tahiti Lagoon (Kohli et al. 2015). Toxic material therefore probably also occurs elsewhere.
Chinain M., Faust M.A. & Pauillac S. 1999. Morphology and molecular analyses of three toxic species of <i>Gambierdiscus</i> (Dinophyceae): <i>G. pacificus</i>, sp. nov., <i>G. australes</i>, sp. nov., and <i>G. polynesiensis</i>, sp. nov. J. Phycol. 35: 1282-1296. 

Kohli, G.S., Farrell, H. & Murray, S.A. (2015). <i>Gambierdiscus</i>, the cause of ciguatera fish poisoning: an increased human health threat influenced by climate change. <em>In: Luis M. Botana, M. Carmen Louzao & Natalia Vilariño (eds). Climate change and marine and freshwater toxins, pp.273-312. De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston.</em>  

Bomber J. W.; Tindall D. R.; Miller D. M. (1989). Genitic variability in toxin potencies among seventeen clones of <i>Gambierdiscus toxicus</i> (Dinophyceae). <em>Journal of Phycology.</em> 25(4): 617-625. 

Bomber J.W; Morton S.L.; Babinchak J.A.; Norris D.R.; Morton J.G. (1988). Epiphytic Dinoflagellates of Drift Algae — Another Toxigenic Community in the Ciguatera Food Chain. <em>Bulletin of Marine Science.</em> 43: 204-214. 
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