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Echinoidea source details

NameKroh, A. & Smith, A.B. (2010): The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 8/2: 147-212.
AuthorsKroh, A.; Smith, A. B.
Year2010
TitleThe phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids
JournalJournal of Systematic Palaeontology
Suffix8(2): 147-212
Type Publication
Linkhttp://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=article&issn=1477-2019&volume=8&issue=2&spage=147
AbstractThe relationships of post-Palaeozoic echinoids at family level are established through phylogenetic analysis of 169 taxa and 306 skeletal characters (excluding pedicellariae). Previous phylogenetic analyses of echinoids have either examined specific subgroups in detail or have looked at a relatively small number of taxa selected from across the class, with sparse sampling potentially affecting the reliability of results adversely. Our new analyses represent a compromise between encompassing the diversity of form that exists, while keeping the number of taxa to a level that does not make rigorous analysis impossibly time-consuming. In constructing the taxon-character data matrix we have encountered a surprising lack of primary data on plating pattern, lantern, and girdle structure for many supposedly “well-known” taxa. A well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis was obtained and is used as the basis for a formal classification. Characters generally have a high retention index (>0.7) but low consistency index (<0.25) suggesting that, although characters are largely retained after they first evolve, most also undergo occasional reversal or convergence. Although parts of the resulting trees are only weakly supported (e.g. the precise sister group of the Irregularia), other parts are unambiguously resolved. Not unexpectedly, deep nodes are often not supported by unique apomorphies and higher taxa acquire their characteristic set of features over time. Diagnoses based on crown group taxa thus often fail to encompass fossil stem-group members adequately. Establishing the relationships of taxa at the root of large groups is hampered by limited character resolution. The influence of fossil taxa on the topology was explored by comparing the tree topologies obtained with and without their inclusion. We show that removal of fossils from stem groups makes no difference where their crown group is morphologically conservative, but has a major influence where extant sister groups are separated by large morphological gaps. Completeness of the echinoid record and its match to the stratigraphical record of first occurrences is tested using various metrics and found to be highly congruent, with irregular echinoids showing a higher congruence than regular ones. Keywords: Echinoids; phylogeny; cladistics; evolution; classification
Taxonomic
terms
Echinodermata
Echinoidea
Taxa
(233)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAbertellidae Durham, 1955 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcroechinoidea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcrolusiidae Mintz, 1968 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcropeltidae Lambert & Thiéry, 1914 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcrosaleniidae Gregory, 1900 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAeropsidae Lambert, 1896 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAmmotrophinae Durham, 1955 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAnorthopygidae Wagner & Durham, 1966b † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAntillasteridae Lambert, in Lambert & Thiéry, 1924 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorApatopygidae Kier, 1962 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArachnoididae Duncan, 1889 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArachnoidinae Duncan, 1889 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArachnoidinae Duncan, 1889 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArbaciidae Gray, 1855 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArbacioida (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArchaeocidaridae McCoy, 1844 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArchiaciidae Cotteau & Triger, 1869 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAspidodiadematidae Duncan, 1889 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAspidodiadematoida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAsterostomatidae Pictet, 1857 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAstriclypeidae Stefanini, 1912 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAtelostomata (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAulodonta (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBreyninæ Lambert, 1905 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLoveniidae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrisasterinae Markov, 1994 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSchizasteridae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrissidae Gray, 1855 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrissidina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrissopsinae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCalycina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCalymnidae Mortensen, 1907 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCamarodonta (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCardiasteridae Lambert, 1917 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCardiasterina † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCardiotaxinae Smith & Jeffery, 2000 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCarinacea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCarnarechininae Mironov, 1993 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCarnarechinidae Mironov, 1993 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCassidulidae L. Agassiz & Desor, 1847 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCassidulina Philip, 1963b (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCassiduloida (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCassiduloida incertae sedis (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaridae Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaridea Gray, 1825 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidarinae Mortensen, 1928a (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaroida (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaroidea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCircopeltinae Smith & Jeffery, 2000 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClaviasteridae Ali, 1992 † accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArchiaciidae Cotteau & Triger, 1869 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClypeasteridae L. Agassiz, 1835 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClypeasterina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClypeasterinae L. Agassiz, 1835 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClypeasteroida (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClypeidae Lambert, 1898 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClypeolampadidae Kier, 1962 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCoelopleuridae Märkel, 1969 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArbaciidae Gray, 1855 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCoenholectypidae Smith & Wright, 1999 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCollyritidae d'Orbigny, 1853 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorConoclypidae von Zittel, 1879 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorConulidae Lambert, 1911a † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorConulidea Kroh & Smith, 2010 † (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCorasterinae Lambert & Thiéry, 1924 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCorystusidae Foster & Philip, 1978 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCtenocidaridae Mortensen, 1928a (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCyclasterinae Poslavskaya, 1964 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDendrasteridae Lambert, 1900 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDesorellidae Lambert, 1911a † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDiadematacea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDiadematidae Gray, 1855 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDiadematoida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDiplocidaridae Gregory, 1900 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDiplopodiidae Smith & Wright, 1993 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDisasteridae Gras, 1848 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDiscoididae Lambert, 1900 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinacea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinarachniidae Lambert in Lambert & Thiéry, 1914 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinidae Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinidea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardiidae Cooke, 1942 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardiinae Cooke, 1942 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardiinae Cooke, 1942 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocorythidae Wright, 1857 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocyamidae Lambert & Thiéry, 1914 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinoidea (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinolampadidae Gray, 1851a (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinolampadoida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinometridae Gray, 1855 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinoneidae L. Agassiz & Desor, 1847 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinoneoida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinothuriidae Thomson, 1872a (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinothurioida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEmiratiidae Ali, 1990 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEoscutellidae Durham, 1955 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEuechinoidea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEupatagidae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEupatangidae accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEupatagidae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEurypatagidae Kroh, 2007 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorFaujasiidae Lambert, 1905 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorFibulariidae Gray, 1855 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorFossulasteridae Philip & Foster, 1971 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGaleritidae Gray, 1825 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGaleropygidae Lambert, 1911a † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGlyphocyphidae Duncan, 1889 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGlyphopneustidae Smith & Wright, 1993 † (basis of record)

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