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Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 41: 47-114.
4179
Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M
2003
Antarctic marine benthic diversity
Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review
41: 47-114
Publication
An unpublished species checklist compiled for background to this paper was used as basis for the Register of Antarctic Marine Species. The paper itself contains no species lists.
Ant'Phipoda Literature database.
Available for editors  PDF available
Species lists have been compiled for all the major groups of Southern Ocean benthic marine invertebrates, eliminating synonymies where possible and providing a subjective estimate of completeness and reliability for each group. Antarctic marine diversity (pelagic and benthic) is relatively high at the phylum and class level, with the gaps mostly comprising minor, meiofaunal or parasitic groups. Most benthic diversity data come from the continental shelves, with relatively few samples from deeper water. Even for the continental shelves, however, sampling is highly patchy with some areas hardly investigated at all. Over 4100 benthic species have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with the most speciose groups being polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. Comparison with tropical and temperate regions suggest that decapods, bivalves and teleost fishes are poorly represented in the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna, whereas pycnogonids, echinoderms and many suspension feeding groups are rich and diverse. Some groups that are currently low in diversity were previously well represented in the Antarctic shallow water marine fauna, notably decapods and many fishes. Other groups have undergone marked radiations in the Southern Ocean, including pycnogonids, amphipods, isopods and teleost fishes; in all cases, however, it is only some lineages that have diversified. This indicates that evolutionary questions concerning the origin, diversification or extinction of the Southern Ocean marine fauna will have no single answer; the evolutionary history of each group appears to reflect a different response to the tectonic, climatic and oceanographic changes to which they have been subject through history. The disposition of southern hemisphere continents makes it difficult to assess whether there is a latitudinal cline in shallow-water marine diversity to mirror that known from the northern hemisphere. Within Antarctica, many species appear to have circumpolar distributions, and the long established biogeographical division into continental Antarctic, Antarctic Peninsula and sub-Antarctic regions have not been challenged by recent sampling. For most groups the frequency distribution of species per genus ratios is typical, though none is well described by the predictions from current evolutionary or null models. Where data are available, size spectra indicate that many Southern Ocean taxa are small, a few spectacular examples of gigantism notwithstanding, and species abundance plots are normal. Knowledge of the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna has reached a stage where we can now ask powerful evolutionary questions, and the development of new molecular techniques provides the mechanism for answering them
Antarctic
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Acodontaster Verrill, 1899 (basis of record)
Acodontaster capitatus (Koehler, 1912) (basis of record)
Acodontaster conspicuus (Koehler, 1920) (basis of record)
Acodontaster elongatus (Sladen, 1889) (basis of record)
Acodontaster hodgsoni (Bell, 1908) (basis of record)
Acodontaster hodgsoni f. hodgsoni (Bell, 1889) (basis of record)
Acodontaster hodgsoni f. stellatus (Koehler, 1920) (basis of record)
Acodontaster marginatus (Koehler, 1912) (basis of record)
Acodontaster waitei (Koehler, 1920) accepted as Acodontaster conspicuus (Koehler, 1920) (basis of record)
Anasterias Perrier, 1875 (basis of record)
Anasterias sphoerulata (Koehler, 1920) (basis of record)
Anseropoda antarctica Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Anteliaster Fisher, 1923 (basis of record)
Anteliaster australis Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Anteliaster scaber (E. A. Smith, 1876) (basis of record)
Asterias antarctica Studer, 1884 accepted as Anasterias antarctica (Lütken, 1857) (basis of record)
Bathybiaster loripes Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Bathybiaster loripes obesus Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Caimanaster A.M. Clark, 1962 (basis of record)
Caimanaster acutus A.M. Clark, 1962 (basis of record)
Chitonaster Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Chitonaster johannae Koehler, 1907 (basis of record)
Cosmasterias Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Cosmasterias lurida (Philippi, 1858) (basis of record)
Cryptasterias Verrill, 1914 (basis of record)
Cryptasterias turqueti (Koehler, 1906) (basis of record)
Cuenotaster Thiéry in Koehler, 1920 (basis of record)
Cuenotaster involutus (Koehler, 1912) (basis of record)
Cycethra Bell, 1881 (basis of record)
Cycethra verrucosa (Philippi, 1857) (basis of record)
Cycethra verrucosa mawsoni A.M. Clark, 1962 (additional source)
Diplasterias Perrier, 1891 (basis of record)
Diplasterias brucei (Koehler, 1907) (basis of record)
Diplasterias meridionalis (Perrier, 1875) (basis of record)
Diplasterias octoradiata (Studer, 1885) (basis of record)
Diplasterias papillosa Koehler, 1906 accepted as Adelasterias papillosa (Koehler, 1906) (basis of record)
Diplasterias radiata (Koehler, 1923) (basis of record)
Gaussaster Ludwig, 1910 (basis of record)
Gaussaster antarcticus (Sladen, 1889) (basis of record)
Gnathaster tenuis (Koehler, 1906) accepted as Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906 (basis of record)
Granaster Perrier, 1894 (basis of record)
Granaster nutrix (Studer, 1885) (basis of record)
Henricia diffidens (Koehler, 1923) (basis of record)
Henricia pagenstecheri (Studer, 1885) (additional source)
Henricia pagenstecheri parva (Koehler, 1912) (additional source)
Henricia parva (Koehler, 1912) (basis of record)
Henricia smilax (Koehler, 1920) (additional source)
Henricia smilax f. tenuis (Koehler, 1920) (basis of record)
Kampylaster Koehler, 1920 (basis of record)
Kampylaster incurvatus Koehler, 1920 (basis of record)
Kenrickaster A.M. Clark, 1962 (basis of record)
Leptychaster accrescens (Koehler, 1920) accepted as Macroptychaster accrescens (Koehler, 1920) (basis of record)
Leptychaster flexuosus (Koehler, 1920) (basis of record)
Leptychaster kerguelenensis kerguelenensis E. A. Smith, 1876 (basis of record)
Leptychaster magnificus (Koehler, 1912) (basis of record)
Lophaster densus Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Lophaster gaini Koehler, 1912 (basis of record)
Lophaster stellans Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Lophaster tenuis Koehler, 1920 (basis of record)
Luidiaster gerlachei (Ludwig, 1903) accepted as Cheiraster (Luidiaster) gerlachei Ludwig, 1903 (basis of record)
Lysasterias Fisher, 1908 (basis of record)
Lysasterias adeliae (Koehler, 1920) (basis of record)
Lysasterias belgicae (Ludwig, 1903) (basis of record)
Lysasterias chirophora (Ludwig, 1903) (basis of record)
Lysasterias digitata A.M. Clark, 1962 (basis of record)
Lysasterias hemiora Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Lysasterias heteractis Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Lysasterias joffrei (Koehler, 1920) (basis of record)
Lysasterias perrieri (Studer, 1885) (basis of record)
Mimaster gracilis H.L. Clark, 1916 accepted as Radiaster gracilis (H.L. Clark, 1916) (basis of record)
Mimastrella Fisher, 1916 (basis of record)
Mirastrella Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Mirastrella biradialis Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Neosmilaster Fisher, 1930 (basis of record)
Neosmilaster georgianus (Studer, 1885) (basis of record)
Neosmilaster steineni (Studer, 1885) (basis of record)
Notasterias armata Koehler, 1911 (basis of record)
Notasterias bongraini (Koehler, 1912) (basis of record)
Notasterias haswelli Koehler, 1920 (basis of record)
Notasterias stolophora Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Notioceramus Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Notioceramus anomalus Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Odinella Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Odinella nutrix Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Odontaster meridionalis (E. A. Smith, 1876) (basis of record)
Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906 (basis of record)
Paralophaster Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Paralophaster antarcticus (Koehler, 1912) (basis of record)
Paralophaster asperatus (Koehler, 1920) accepted as Paralophaster godfroyi asperatus (Koehler, 1920) (basis of record)
Paralophaster godfroyi (Koehler, 1912) (basis of record)
Pedicellaster hypernotius Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Pedicellaster hypernotius formatus Koehler, 1920 (basis of record)
Pergamaster Koehler, 1920 (basis of record)
Pergamaster incertus (Bell, 1908) (basis of record)
Pergamaster synaptorus Fisher, 1940 accepted as Pergamaster incertus (Bell, 1908) (basis of record)
Pergamaster tessellatus Koehler, 1920 accepted as Pergamaster incertus (Bell, 1908) (basis of record)
Peribolaster Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Peribolaster macleani Koehler, 1920 (basis of record)
Perknaster Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Perknaster antarcticus (Koehler, 1906) (basis of record)
 Authority

Author uncertain [details]

 Authority

(Kinberg, 1866) according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Monniot & Monniot, 1982 [details]

 Authority

RAMS gives this species (Kroyer, 1856) as author [details]

 Authority

Described by Lyman in 1882 [details]

 Authority

(Keferstein, 1863) is mentioned in RAMS [details]

 Authority

RAMS mentions Ehlers, 1875 as author [details]

 Authority

Gambi et al., 1997 found 2 not yet described species: "sp.1" and "sp.2" [details]

 Authority

Ehlers, 1897 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Schmarda, 1861 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Hartman, 1967 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Ehlers, 1874 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Mentioned as Kinberg, 1866a in RAMS [details]

 Authority

The authors are uncertain about the authority [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Anoplodactylus belongs to the Pycnogonidae family instead of the Phoxichilidiidae family. [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Ascothorax belongs to the Synagogidae family instead of the Ascothoracidae family. [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Balanus belongs to the Bathylasmatidae family instead of the Balanidae family. [details]

 Classification

Listed under family Pyuridae [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Placed under Subfamily Coninae [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Coronula belongs to the Bathylasmatidae family instead of the Coronulidae family. [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the family Ctenosculidae belongs to the Cirripedia infraclass instead of the Ascothoracida ... [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the family Dendrogastridae belongs to the Cirripedia infraclass instead of the Ascothoracida ... [details]

 Classification

Under Subfamily Cioninae [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Genus Escharella is considered by RAMS to belong to the FamilyExochellidae [details]

 Classification

The Genus Escharoides is considered bt RAMS to belong to the Family Exochellidae [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Considered by RAMS to belong to the Family Exochellidae [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Listed under Dimeatidae in Clarke & Johnston (2003). [details]

 Classification

Belongs to the family Arcturidae accoring to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Pallenopsis belongs to the Callipallenidae; in the printed version of ERMS, the genus is ... [details]

 Classification

Belongs to family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Placed in family Plicatocrinidae by Clarke & Johnston (2003). [details]

 Classification

belongs to familt Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the family Synagogidae belongs to the Cirripedia infraclass instead of the Ascothoracida infraclass. [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Belongs to family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Xenobalanus belongs to the Bathylasmatidae family instead of the Coronulidae family. [details]

 Identification

cf. loveni Malmgren, 1865 [details]

 Identification

The authors are uncertain about the Species [details]

 Spelling
 for Actiniaria

Actinaria [details]

 Spelling

Actinidae [details]

 Spelling

Actinoschyphiidae [details]

 Spelling

Spelled as Alyconidum eightsi in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Spelled as Amphlibestrum inermis in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Spelles as Amphiporus gerlachi in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Biemna chiliensis[details]

 Spelling

Spelled as Camploplites retiformis in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Also spelled Cerebratulus malvidi in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Coelosphaera appendiculata[details]

 Spelling

In RAMS spelled as Cymodocea australis [details]

 Spelling

commonly misspelled as Dendrophyllidae [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Desmacidon ramosa and by Uriz as Desmacidon ramosus, but corrected for gender of genus name. [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Dolichocantha macrodon[details]

 Spelling

Clarke & Johnston's (2003) list of Antarctic sponges misspelled the (sub-)genus name Ectyomyxilla as Ectomyxilla, ... [details]

 Spelling

This Genus is also spelled Frontoserolils in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Gorgonidae [details]

 Spelling

Spelled Harmothoe (Harmathoe) spinosa in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Spelled Herdmadion in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

In RAMS, this species is spelled "Herdmadion magalhaensi" [details]

 Spelling

Jathrippa [details]

 Spelling

Kophobelemnonidae [details]

 Spelling

As far as is known the genus misspelling 'Leospira' exists only in an unpublished checklist associated with the ... [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Leucoselenia[details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Leucoselenia discoveryi[details]

 Spelling

Mogula pedunculata in RAMS checklist [details]

 Spelling

listed as Mogula robini [details]

 Spelling

in RAMS spelled as M. longircollaris [details]

 Spelling

Spelled in RAMS as Pseudoscalibregmida bransfieldia [details]

 Spelling

In RAMS spelled as S.( Leodamus) marginatus mcleani [details]

 Spelling

In RAMS spelled as S. (Leodamus) ohlini [details]

 Spelling

Also spelled T. maikenensis in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Umbellula thomsonii [details]

 Taxonomy

Belongs to Prosorhochmidae according to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

A species named A. nr. hastulifera was described by (Fauvel, 1936) in RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS also mentions a species Autolutus cf. maclearanus [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS also mentions a species Autolytus cf. simplex [details]

 Taxonomy

Hooper (2002) and Van Soest (2002) in the same volume assign Bipocillopsis as a junior synonym to different genera ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Belongs to Lineidae accoriding to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

Classified under Onuphidae in RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

Gambi et al., 1997 mentions two not yet described species: sp. 1 and sp. 2 [details]

 Taxonomy

Referred to by RAMS as Geodinella, which is a junior genus name for Geodia according to a checklist provided by Rob ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Gambi et al., 1997 mention a not yet described species, Harmothoe sp.1 [details]

 Taxonomy

The genus Leodora is placed under Serpulidae according to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

Classified under Iphitimidae [details]

 Taxonomy

Was under Iphitimidae. Palpiphitime is best treated as a species group within Ophyrotrocha according to Wiklund et ... [details]

 Taxonomy

This Genus is placed under Serpulidae in RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

This genus belongs to Lineidae according to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS also mentions a species Pionosyllis cf. comosa [details]

 Taxonomy

Gambi et al., 1997 mentios 2 not yet described species: sp.1 and sp.2 [details]

 Taxonomy

(Hartman, 1978) mentions 3 not yet described species: sp.A, sp. B and sp. C [details]

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